This is a mains 230V AC load current indicator and is a LIVE CIRCUIT, so take care. The Resistors have to be a fusible ceramic wire wound.
More at Mains Voltage and Power Circuits
This circuit has been drawn from my memory and i have not tried it out again, just see if it is ok and then try. You should use the fuse of 1A a slow blow if you want but it is very important. You can design the shunt R3 and Fuse rating as required by your load.
Note that this circuit is to be put in series with the load like an ammeter. If you put it across the supply like a voltmeter it will fuse out or burn out. This circuit has to be enclosed in a plastic sealed enclosure to avoid contact.
The circuit uses opto-coupler MOC3041 of Motorola and the Triac BTA16-600 of STMicro as a solid state switch or relay. Four Switches boost or buck the mains voltage, keeping output within limits.
Power Electronics Design Methods
It also uses the LM324 quad opamp from National Semiconductor which is low power and single supply. As the MOC3041 switches the Triac at zero crossover there is no inter-winding short of transformer on crossover hopefully, the control circuit is designed in such a way that more than one triac will not be turned on at a time, i would like you to give feedback.
555 multivibrator like power oscillator
This circuit is a design concept, not tested by me and i did it just to explain some ideas.
The triac will switch at zero cross over because of MOC3041, hence no problem of an interwinding short, but then control circuit may fail or malfunction, so use fuse as shown . Also a snubber made of a 47E resistor and 0.02uF 630V pl cap in series must be placed across each triac.
Battery and Energy Management
Use heatsinks for all parts that heat, air circulation. Use Presets with series resistor as required so that you can test or calibrate. This Stabilizer should not be used with Inductive loads like motors or solenoids it may be ok for lighting and small electronics. If input voltage is 230V put the two 110V windings in series in proper polarity. BTA16600 is a ST part, metal tab is electrically insulated, 16A and 600V.
All mains wiring and connections should be designed for high voltage and current, They should be isolated visually from control circuits by 10 mm or more.
It can Stabilize Mains voltage to around +/- 10% . It can be used for both 110V AC or 220V AC inputs with modifications. The Output is 220V AC. There is an overload, under voltage and over voltage trip circuit.
Mains Stabilty and Supply Regulation
U2A and U2B are two comparators which controls relays K2 and K3 Respectively. One Boosts the voltage (Step-up) when mains supply is low. The other Bucks the voltage (Step-down) when mains voltage goes beyond a limit.
UPS Power Inverter and DC to AC
U2C and U2D work like a window comparator to trip the unit above and below certain preset limits. This circuit is clubbed with a Mains control relay K1 which can be Turned ON-OFF with two pushbuttons.
This circuit is a design i did, not tested by me as yet.With some tweaks and modifications it might work.
Put a 0.1uF 1KV pl cap across all relay contacts to avoid sparking. Relay current paths should be large and direct to supply, or when relay operates ground will lift and cause malfunction.All mains wiring and connections should be designed for high voltage and current, They should be isolated visually from control circuits by 10 mm or more. If input voltage is 230V put the two 110V windings in series in proper polarity.
Electric double layer capacitor an eFlywheel
Put one LED with resistor for boost and buck indication if required. Use Presets with series resistor as required so that you can test or calibrate. The 1M dead band or hysteresis resistor can be varied from 330K to 10M as performance demands, this resistor stops oscillation or chattering of relays.
This supply gives both positive and negative outputs. Appropriate Fuses should be used to protect from fire hazard and overload of transformer.
The Filter capacitor C1 4700uF has an impedance of Xc = 1 / (2 * 3.14 * f * C) which comes to 0.6 ohms at 50 Hz. The impedance of the load at 2A for 24V is R = V / I that is 12 Ohms which is more than 20 times the impedance of the capacitor at 50 Hz. That means less than 1 / 20 of ripple current will flow thru the load. The Regulator also reduces the ripple a little.
Simple WorkBench Dual Power Supply