It is called analog dial timer as it has no digital display, but the chip is digital it is CD4541. It is Mains operated, you could make on-delay or off-delay. By changing the caps and resistors or with even dip-switches you could get timing of few seconds to many hours. Circuit is Analog Timer 4541 .
Some timers energize the relay after a set delay on power start. Some start with relay energized and turn off after set time. Motors and big systems cannot take fast turn-on and turn-off, Some systems will require sections or modules to start one after another as they are interdependent. So Timers in automation were made to effect such delays, the early ones were mechanical clockwork.
The CD4541BC Programmable Timer is designed with a 16-stage binary counter, an integrated oscillator for use with an external capacitor and two resistors, output control logic, and a special power-on reset circuit. The special features of the power-on reset circuit are first, no additional static power consumption and second, the part functions across the full voltage range (3V¨C15V) whether power-on reset is enabled or disabled.
- Available division ratios 28, 210, 213, or 216.
- Increments on positive edge clock transitions.
- Built-in low power RC oscillator.
- Oscillator frequency range . DC to 100 kHz.
- Power on Auto reset initializes all counters.
CD4046 is a PLL or phase lock loop, it mainly consists of a VCO and phase comparators. This is a component in FM demodulation and modulation.
Mixed and Interface Circuits
It is used in a closed loop control to maintain a stable frequency. The Circuit above is good for learning the full use of a small Dual Trace Scope. The Circuit has both Analog and Digital areas and is a part of communication.
Read the pages above for building more Knowledge on PLL
LM311 is a comparator, It operates from single 5V supply or dual supplies,input current 150 nA, 50 V-50 mA output drive capability. TTL-CMOS compatible output.
Even LM324 used as a comparator Water Level Indicator with Reed Relays
The Output is open collector so it can sink current but cannot source, a totem pole output can source and sink. In this Circuit R2 is the source or pull-up.
The Output being high or low depends on which input is more dominant or positive. If + or non-inverting input is more positive than the – inverting input then output of LM311 is high impedance or high Z as output transistor of LM311 is turned off, but output goes high due to R2 pull-up 1K, so you can apply a load of 10K and above for source. When the – input or inverting input is more positive, output goes Low as transistor turns on, now a current of upto 50mA can sink here, a LED or Relay can be driven.
Mixed Circuits Analog with Digital
On turn on C2 capacitor is discharged and pin 3 the inverting input is at a lower potential than pin 2 the non-inverting which is at 2.5V. Hence output goes high and C2 starts charging thru R5, When C2 charges a little beyond 2.5V pin 3 is more dominant and output goes low now, this slowly discharges the C2 bringing the voltage at pin 3 again below 2.5V so output goes high again. This process goes on, hence it oscillates. The charging and discharging is at the rate of R5 * C2 approx. , R3 serves as hysteresis or feedback to ensure clean turn on and off.
This circuit is based on a very old application note from exar, in this the frequency is fixed by IC1 and IC2 -P1 controls the duty cycle. you need to compute the R and C values to get what you need, LM555 data sheet.
You have to study the circuit and do something more innovative perhaps, just copying is ok for learning but it will get you nowhere, so learn and then innovate, the eagle circuit is given below so you can learn by editing it, also design a PCB with it, and you can even make a PCB at home to learn, but it is always good to get PCBs done by a PCB vendor, but you should understand his problems, then you will design well, so make a few PCBs.
Edit the circuit eagle cad file del00012.zip