This is the third circuit that you will need to build a Simple Benchtop DMM with no Microcontroller.
Here the U1D and U1B 4093 acts like a de-bouncing circuit for the push keys. The 4029 counts up scrolling to binary values 00, 01, 10, 11 for the four ranges.
The binary value of 4029 is decoded to decimal by 4028 in order to light four LEDs which indicates the range or mode on the front panel. When any of these pushbuttons are pressed and held, the nand schmitt 4093 clocks to scroll the range continuously. The binary output of these counters control CMOS switches 4052 which are analog multiplexers.
The DPM or DVM gives a readout of an Analog Value or process. The Analog reading we obtain from a Circuit Measurement Jig represents some real world parameter.
In a multi-parameter instrument like DMM, the measurement jig functions and the analog signal routing is done by ganged range selection switches.
Read More here DMM range and AC-DC mode Logic
This is a simple charger circuit which will work for a light load like a DMM, the Battery can be a sealed maintenance free battery of 9V-2AH or better. The circuit will work best if the Unit is powered on many times daily on regular use, else battery will drain down.
The 555 Astable is used to generate a AC signal from which a negative voltage is generated, A 79L05 which is a low power TO92 equivalent of 7905 a negative -5 volts regulator is used as -5 volts load is less. A TO220 7805 is used for the +5V supply.
Many dual supplies are derived from one DC Source. A SMPS solution is the best. A Series Regulator is simple to troubleshoot in comparison to Switching Types, there is no EMI-RFI too.
Power supply with battery backup – DMM
This simple circuit is ok only for Low Current gadgets, Whereas SMPS is green and efficient. In SMPS a greater care for Product Safety is required. In a Linear Supply with Step-Down Mains-Frequency Transformer. The Transformer is the only place, where you look into safety the most. In SMPS it is the PCB, the feedback components and also The High-Frequency (200 kHz) Mains Ferrite Transformer.
This a part of a complete Benchtop DMM that you can build to learn the internals of a Digital MultiMeter. This is oriented towards learning the measurement aspects and the protection of input circuits.
U2A opamp LF353 is used here as a constant current source, R10-D13-D14 is for protection in case you measure voltage in the ohms range. U1 4052 helps digitally select four different currents, the currents pass thru the unknown resistor to be measured and an voltage developed across the resistor is measured.
U2B is a buffer which passes on the voltage measured to U5A for inversion of polarity as current source is a negative current (current sink). U5B amplifies to the level required for the LM3914 display circuit. U7 555 is used as a de-bouncing for switch SW1 so as to advance counter 4029 to change the range of resistance measurement.
Use any FET input dual opamp, TLO72 will work but LM358 will cause error as it is transistor input..
D1, D12 and R8 are to ensure that the FET can be turned off, as the opamp swings from +/-3.5V only, with some FET it needs to be tweaked. LF353 is a Wide Bandwidth Dual JFET Input Operational Amplifier.
Build a DMM – LM3914 Analog display
U1A LF353 opamp turns on a buzzer when the voltage at Test + falls very low indicating a short between Test + and Test – or a resistor less than 5 ohms. The R9-R14 divider determines the minimum voltage that can be at Test + for buzzer to just turn on.
The Opamp here is a comparator and R10 10 Meg gives a very small hysteresis so that there is no oscillation at threshold levels, that is when both inputs at same levels.The Zener is for protection and R6 to limit current.
U2A and U1B opamps form a precision rectifier, note that this is not a true RMS rectifier circuit for that see some devices from Analog Devices. When you need to rectify a 200mV AC signal you cannot use a diode like 1N4148 as the diode turns on at 700mV so this circuit is used.
AC conversion and continuity buzzer test
The AC signal measurement is best to do with a True RMS convertor. This Type is able to quantify the Heating power of a AC voltage, includes all harmonics and Noise too.