Analog

The input impedance of this module is very high, if U1 is OP07 it is in mega ohms, use CA3140 or LF356 fet input opamps to get 1 tera ohm input impedance, but for high gains OP07 is better as it is ultra low offset, this is a good amplifier for sensor outputs, as in a DC Circuit.

Non-Inverting Opamp Interactive Simulation

Non-Inverting Amplifier - Op-Amp Circuits

Vout = Vin * (Rf + Ri) / Ri

The Spice in Analog Design

The zener diodes protect the opamp inputs, R1 limits current during high voltage inputs and R1 and C1 form a filter to remove ac components C1 should be a plastic type as ceramic and electrolytic caps are leaky. A large C1 will slow the response time, the sum of Ri + Rf should be greater than 5k so that output is not loaded. also do not connect output to voltages more than vcc/vdd it will blow Opamp.

This is a Test arrangement for Leakage Testing of Diodes on Reverse Bias. The leakage current indicates the ability of the diode to withstand higher voltages. An AutoTransformer or Variac can be used to vary the test voltage. Even Plastic capacitors can be tested for leakage this way.

High Resistance Indicator – del50004

Diode Reverse Bias Leakage Tester

Safety Precautions –
Use a Isolation 1:1 transformer for safety. This circuit has to be enclosed in a insulated cabinet. A Jig or Acrylic Safety Plate with clamp can be used to connect the diode. The voltage is only applied as long as a Mains two way push switch is pressed. This adds to the safety.

Build a DMM or Digital Multi Meter

Caution Instruction –
Use this with Low voltages like 24V AC for Learning. Do not Use it with High Voltage AC. If you are learning, first work with other circuits using batteries or Low Voltage Mains Adapters.

The gain of U1 can be controlled by a digital binary 1248 nibble at ABC. The gain at digital 000 is unity or 1 and the gain at various stages are set by 4051.

Precision Attenuator with Digital Control – delabs

There are eight different gains as the steps of gain resistor network is chosen by 4051. The on resistance of 4051 channel around 100E gets added to U1 pin 2 internal impedance.

Digital gain control of Opamp

Auto ranging 4-1/2 Digit Digital Voltmeter – delabs

You can use separate resistor networks with trimpots for each channel if you require but keep the networks total burden on U1 pin 6 to around 10K, not less than than. You can use this to set the gain of a amplifier with the help of a microcontroller.

A, B, and C are the Digital Control for x, y and z input and output pairs.The voltage at Vinx is stored in C1 when A goes high, when A is low the voltage stored in C1 is read by buffer U2A.

It could be used in DMM circuits as Analog Memory DMM range, AC-DC mode, logic control

Sample and Hold with Standby CD4053

Another application of  Mux 8 Channel 4-20mA Analog Multiplexer

The stby or standby input should be low when sample and hold is operating. If stby is taken high then C1 Cap is isolated and leakage is minimum. The supply of +/- 7.5V is chosen as OFF resistance of 4053 is high at this supply.