This is an electronic choke for a Conventional Fluorescent Lamp. This was an application note of MJE13005 a High Voltage Switching NPN Power Transistor. I Might have modified it. This was very popular in the early days, The Coil Winding and Ferrite is very Critical design.

Emergency Light with Fluorescent Tubes

Tubelight Electronic Choke

The diodes, npn transistor and caps are high voltage 350V-1KV, The tubelight is 40W-60W 5 feet long. This circuit replaced the choke and starter in an existing frame.

Low Cost Simple CFL lamp

Read More.

This is a R-2R Digital to Analog Converter, It converts a byte (8 bit) to a analog value. It has 256 levels including zero.

This was the first Digital Pot i Built decades back – Digital Potentiometer

This can be used to convert a byte sent from a microcontroller to a analog value like say 1.51 V. At full scale, when all 8 bits are high calibrate to give 2.55 V then ever bit increment is 0.01V, 10mV steps.

Digital to Analog with R2R Ladder Network

If the eight bits inputs are from a counter you then will see a staircase waveform at output, each step being 10mV higher or lower depending on whether the counter is counting up or down.

The accuracy of the analog output depends on the resistor ladder. The OP07 has an offset error of about 70uV only. The 74HCT373 power is derived from LM336 a stable reference so that the D-A is accurate. The 8 bit data can be latched with the 74HCT373 to get a stable analog value for control systems.

See another circuit in which both these ICs are used Mini RTD Pt-100 Three Wire Transmitter

OP07E has very low input offset voltage 75 µV max and low input bias current ±4 nA

This will monitor telephone status without loading the telephone line, this way if you have two phones in parallel you will know if one of them is busy. Connect the two ends of circuit in parallel to phone lines.

Telephone LED status indicator

D1 to D4 make a bridge so that LED’s are powered in correct polarity. LED1 indicates line ok no broken line, LED3 can light only when a 12V Zener breaksdown, this shows if line is busy or free, so that you dont go online when someone is talking on the phone in another room. LED2 lights on an incoming call ringing signal.

Learn on Gadget Hacks and Making Things

This is a higher voltage at least in older exchanges, so the cap protects the LED, and LED Lights when a AC ringing signal occurs. D6 protects LED2 from reverse polarity.

Learning Science to Promote Scientific Thinking

Science is best learnt with practical lab work in tandem with theory. Theory becomes appetizing only with practical experiments. In fact theory should follow practical experiments.

ICL8038 and XR-2206 can help you build a Function Generator or Wavform Generator. It is needed along with the Oscilloscope and Power Supply on the Workbench.

The ICL8038 waveform generator is a monolithic integrated circuit capable of producing high accuracy sine, square, triangular, sawtooth and pulse waveforms with a minimum of external components. The frequency (or repetition rate) can be selected externally from 0.001Hz to more than 300kHz using either resistors or capacitors, and frequency modulation and sweeping can be accomplished with an external voltage.

See the Full page with parts list at my Website – Function Generator using ICL8038.

Function Generator using ICL8038

Specifications

Frequency range – 0.95 Hz to 105 KHz in five decade ranges
Waveforms – Sine, Triangular and Square.
Output amplitude – Adjustable from 10 mV PP. to 10 V PP
Output impedance – 50 ohms.