This Circuit helps in the monitoring of mains supply voltage. It does not use a isolation step down transformer. This has to be constructed only by skilled people with knowledge of safety requirements.

C1 0.47uF can be brought down to 0.22uF for low LED currents, use high efficiency ultra bright LEDs.C1 should be 440V AC or 630V DC plastic axial yellow, polyester, polycarbonate, polypropylene, metalized film.

R3-R6-R9-R14-R18 resistor divider determines the LED turn on or threshold switch points, 10M for hysteresis.

Mains Voltage and Power Circuits

Adjust R16 preset with a log Plastic tweaker to get the led D2 to turn on when input voltage is at 220V AC. This has to be done after PCB is put in a sealed fire-retardant-plastic or epoxy box. drill a hole in box for plastic tweaker.

LM324 – Low Power Quad Operational Amplifier

This Circuit is Not a Tested Design. It is an Idea for study
Simple Mains Voltage monitor LM324
Warning : This Circuit is Mains Operated without Isolation Transformer and will give lethal electric shock if touched when the circuit is turned on. Test circuit only with DC 9V Bench Power Supply to try it out. Do not use 230V AC.

The OP07 is in a non inverting amplifier so as not load the mV of thermocouple, the zeners are to protect circuit if junction contacts heaters or the earth gets broken.

Thermocouple and Pt-100 RTD

The RC is to filter out 50Hz pick up in thermocouple wires if near heater wiring and also reduces reading jumps when high current three phase contacter operates.

Simple Thermocouple Amplifier

The Pull-up 10M is when a Thermocouple breaks the output of circuit will be max. This is open sensor protection, in case Thermocouple breaks, Required only in industrial temperature controllers for protection. This means it will be 3.5V which should make you turn off the heater in software.

J and K Thermocouple with 4-20 mA

The other opamp is for further amplification as OP07 is set to around 30 gain and offset has to be adjusted with R9. If OP07 is kept in > 100 gain it may be difficult to adjust offset of 75uV. If you need very high gain in the first stage use some instrumentation amplifier or chopper stabilized amplifier. I am not very sure. This is the very basic Thermocouple Amplifier used as a front end signal conditioning in Process Control.

LM331 is a Voltage-to-Frequency Converters and  74C926 is a 4 Digit Counter. The first part of the circuit converts the amplified DC analog value from a shunt to pulses. The Second counts the pulses and Displays it on a Seven segment LED display.

Amp Hour Meter using LM331 and 74C926

In Electroplating, the time taken will determine the plating thickness which is both related to cost and quality. More current also means more metal has been used so it has to be monitored to control and deliver cost effective electro plating quality.

Mixed and Interface Circuits

A high current with low voltage is applied on special electrodes. One of the electrodes will have the job to be plated. The Medium is an Electrolyte. This is a part of Electrochemistry, Battery, Cells, Electrolytic Capacitors all belong to this branch.

This Circuit is a simple Analog to Digital Interface with a capability of 10 to 12 bits resolution. 10 bits means 1024 counts or parts of a full scale FS which is close to 3-1/2 1999 counts.

VCO with LM331

In this 1 V can be read as 1.000 V that means even 1mV can be resolved for FS of 1V. The Caps C6 and others must be plastic multilayer low-leakage types for accuracy of reading. Use all 1% MFR 100ppm or better resistors, Design gain of U1B for the Full Scale you want.

Mixed Circuits Analog with Digital

The Output Fout is a Frequency which is directly proportional to the measured voltage Vin. The pulses can be isolated using opto-couplers to avoid ground loops or electric hazard. An additional protection and scaling circuit at the input may be required for some sensors.