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Buffer or Unity Gain Op-Amp

If output impedance of a point is a high value then connecting another circuit at that point will load it resulting in malfunction or error. Buffers are used as interface between circuits. Low impedance of an output means it can source sink lot of current, when you need 2 opamps use LF353 or TL072 which are dual opamps.

Blind Dial Proportional Temperature Controller

A non-inv FET input is the best buffer, for inverting buffer use high R values Using very high R values like 2.2M or higher requires a glass epoxy PCB and guard rings around pin 2, 3 to prevent leakage currents on the PCB reaching the PINs. Also moisture and dust has to be prevented by using RTV coating or Varnish. Use 78L05 79L05 for the dual supply required by this circuit.

Buffer or Unity Gain Op-Amp

Vout = -(Vin) for inverting

Vout = Vin for non-inverting


Frequency Divider 74HCT4040

U1 7555 is a CMOS version of 555. The 555 here is in Astable Oscillator mode, C1 and C4 are decoupling capacitors 0.1uF value, ceramic disc.

Mixed and Interface Circuits

The output is around 100kHz, If C3 is plastic or mica the frequency output will be stable with temperature. It is better to use a crystal oscillator.

Frequency Divider 74HCT4040

The 555 output is fed to clock input of 4040, the output of 555 will be a square wave, on every high to low transition (falling edge or negative transition) the counter increments by one and the output is 12 bit binary.

Read more at my Digital Timers, Counters and Clocks

If input frequency is F the final output at Q12 is F/4096. The period T = 1/F.
If you make the 555 run at 1Hz, C3 around 7uF, Then this circuit becomes a long duration timer, the Q12 period will be 4096 seconds or 68 minutes.

Voltage to Frequency Converter AD Interface

This is the Analog front end of the 80C39 Process Controller. The analog input is protected by a Zener barrier, low leakage. You could use clamping diodes too.

The non-inverting low-offset amp offers high input impedance. After further amplification it reaches the VCO LM331. The pulse train from the VCO reaches the uC port and is gated and measured by the MCS48 firmware. The voltage is deduced from the Frequency or Pulse width.

Voltage to Frequency Converter AD Interface

You can get a resolution near to a 8-10 bit A/D converter. It does not work for negative voltages. It is a low cost Voltmeter or Process Display solution.

80C39 and MCS48 based Process Controller is the main circuit that has the LED 7 segment display for output and push keys for input.