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Battery Backup for SRAM or Microcontroller

This circuit can be used as a low cost SRAM and Microcontroller-Microprocessor Battery Backup. All the diodes are 1N4148, The diodes prevent battery discharge back to power source. D8 gives a one way path to charge Battery thru R13 which limits current. D4 ensures a one way path of supply to chip when power is present. D5 is backup supply on power failure.

Battery Backup for SRAM or Microcontroller

The chip a real time clock, RAM or Processor can be put to standby or sleep on power failure. If it is not a smart chip then make sure on power failure all outputs of chip are high impedance or floating. do not use any pullups or resistor dividers to Vbat, which is the supply to chip. There should be no leakage path from Vbat, decoupling cap of chip must be plastic.

Microcontroller in Process Control

If you want to use this circuit for short term retention or for CMOS logic chips then you can use a 4700uF Cap in place of battery. This works for many hours but the cap has big footprint on PCB. For long duration use more battery AH Ampere-Hour. Vcc is 5V DC regulated.

The Vbat and Vcc can be monitored with comparator like LM339, this circuit can generate the reset or low battery signals. The power on reset and power down reset can corrupt data on brown outs or black outs or even spikes and EMI. So back up data on flash. For Rapid writing and reading SRAM is better and if write-read cycles are high SRAM is best. But if you need to store values and refer to them like a look-up table flash is better.

Serial Interface a 80C31 to ICL7135

The power fluctuations can hang the chip, so a watchdog chip may be required. The conventional way was the to monitor the keyboard-display scan on a i/o port. If the pulses are coming at the rate you programmed the cpu is alive and kicking and doing its job. If the CPU is taking a nap, then the pulses stop coming and it needs to be reset.

Diode Thermometer

Measurement Of Temperature – When power transistors are used, they may tend to over heat. Likewise resistors may also overheat in the event of faults or short-circuits. The knowledge of their temperatures may be advantageous. In addition, measurement of temperature constitutes a basic necessity in day-to-day life.

Measuring the temperature of a body, depends upon the establishment of thermo-dynamic equilibrium between the body and the device used to sense the temperature. In practice, this condition is rarely attained since it is difficult to establish complete instantaneous equilibrium. Hence great care must be exercised in choosing a method suited to the problem so that satisfactory conditions for temperature measurements are obtained. Temperature sensors possess thermal characteristics dependent largely on their size and shape and the materials from which they are made. These characteristics affect precise measurements. The introduction of a temperature sensor into a body tends to modify the temperature conditions at that point. In most cases the sensor is connected to a recording instrument by means of an intermediate system, along which the signal is carried. The intermediate system and the recorder may be subject to temperature and other changes. Hence compensating devices become a necessity to reduce or eliminate errors.

Diode Thermometer

The measurement of temperature in our instrument depends on the fact that the forward voltage drop of a silicon diode changes by about – 2 millivolts per degree centigrade. Thus, by measuring the change in forward voltage of silicon diode kept in a temperature probe, the voltage drop can be converted into temperature.

Since this involves the measurement of millivolt level accurately a precision voltage source is needed. This can be conveniently obtained from the 3 pin + 5v voltage regulator. This voltage is tapped using a preset VR6 whose output is used for adjusting the ice bath temperature reading to zero degree. This tapped voltage is fed to the diode in the temperature probe and the other end of the diode is returned to a negative supply of -8v. The negative supply uses a (-8v regulated output from IC 7808 voltage regulator) which has the least variation with temperature. Now, the voltage at the probe point is connected to the input of DPM via function selector switch ST.

The temperature probe can be made by a length of shielded audio cable connected to any type of mini plug and fitted onto the front panel socket SSG/T. The free end of the cable is soldered to the diode. The diode is kept just at the tip of the cable. A miniature glass diode like 1N4148 is preferred. The soldering makes a good fixture at the end of the cable. The meter can thus measure temperatures from 0°C to 150°C continuously and upto 200°C momentarily since above that the cable starts melting.

Epoxy Resin and a used Metal Pen Refill can be used to make a sensor to insulate the cable. The diode must be thermally and electrically isulated from metal tube.

(above text may have ocr and concept errors)

Extra Reading –

Tubelight Electronic Choke

This is an electronic choke for a Conventional Fluorescent Lamp. This was an application note of MJE13005 a High Voltage Switching NPN Power Transistor. I Might have modified it. This was very popular in the early days, The Coil Winding and Ferrite is very Critical design.

Tubelight Electronic Choke

The diodes, npn transistor and caps are high voltage 350V-1KV, The tubelight is 40W-60W 5 feet long. This circuit replaced the choke and starter in an existing frame.

Read More.

Voltmeter Attenuator Rectifier

Measurement of Voltage : –

In testing electronic circuits, Measurement of voltages is important for diagnosing faults and making the circuits work. In circuit diagrams given in equipment manuals, voltages at various points in the circuit are usually marked. A deviation from these values indicates that some component has failed and eventually leads to clues for isolating the faulty areas.

Voltmeter Attenuator Rectifier

Specifications :-

D.C. Voltage
Ranges : +/- 200 mV, 2V, 20V, 200V, 2000V.
Input impedance: 10 mega ohms.
Circuit protection: + 2000V D.C. all ranges.
Over range: 100% to 1999.
Accuracy: +/- 0.5%.

A.C. Voltage
Note: Average responding Ranges calibrated for sine wave.
Ranges: 200 mV, 2V, 200V, 2000V
Input impedance 10 mega ohms.
Circuit protection : 750V r.m.s., all ranges.
Over range: 100% to 1999.

Description :-

As our DPM is capable of measuring only 200 mv full scale deflection, the input voltage in the case of exceeding the range needs scaling down. This is achieved by an attenuator chain.

D.C-voltage -measurement:

The circuit for the measurement of voltage (AC. and DC) from 0.2V to 2000V is as shown. In case of DC voltage measurement, A mode switch selects the input voltage and passes it via an attenuator chain. Resistors R6, R7, R8, R9 and R 10 comprise the attenuator chain. The attenuation chain is in fact the range selection network.

The voltage ranges are provided in 5 decades i.e. 200 mV, 2V, 20V, 200V, and 2000V. The input voltage after attenuation is fed, depending on the range selected by switch Rs, through switch Sad to the DPM input point. The reading on the DPM gives the value of DC voltage being measured.

A.C-voltage measurement:

Most D.C. measurements are made with AC. to DC. converters which produce a DC. proportional to the AC. input being measured and apply this DC. signal to the DPM. Converting the signal to DC at an early stage minimizes the serious errors which otherwise could result from frequency selective circuits.

When an AC voltage is to be measured, the switch Sad is to be operated. This switches enables the signal to pass through a buffer and precision rectifier and then to the DPM input while measuring AC. but passes it directly to the DPM input while measuring DC. So, now the signal after passing via the attenuator chain is fed to IC2. The buffered output of IC2 is fed through the capacitors C 10 and C 1 1 to IC3 (CA 3140-TL071) which is an FET input operational amplifier, acting as a precision rectifier. By means of diode D4 and resistor R24, rectification with gain is obtained for positive half cycles of the AC. signal while the negative half cycles are directly fed back by the diode D3. The half-wave rectified voltage is filtered by the resistor R25 and capacitor C12 combination.

The capacitors C6, C7, C8, C9 connected across resistors in the attenuator chain provide some frequency correction during AC input. The presence of offset voltage in IC3 is to be compensated using variable preset VR2. Preset VR3 is used to correct the reading so as to indicate the true a.c. value of the voltage. On passing the preset VR3, the signal enters the DPM. The reading on the panel gives the value of AC voltage being measured.

Parts List :-

1. Semiconductors
IC2 and IC3-CA3140 or TL071. D1 and D2-5V Zener 1W, D3 and D4-IN4148,

2. Resistors.
a. 1/2 W 1%,
R6-1M, R7-100KE, R8-IOKE, R9-1KE, R10-100E,
R18 and R19-10K, R23-15KE, R24-100 KE, R25-1 KE,

3. Presets.
VR3-220KE

4. Capacitors
C10 and C11 10MFD, C6-47PF, C7-1 KPF, C8-6.8KPF, C9-8KPF, C12-1MFD.

5. Miscellaneous
SSG/T-SOCKET, 51,52-DPDT, A,B,C,D-BNC,SKT, F2-100mA fuse, RS-8P2Wx5 INTERLOCKED. S-2p2wx7 Interlocked