This is the continuation of the earlier post. Part of 80C39 based Process Controller. In this schematic you can see the Watchdog and D/A Converter.

80C39 and MCS48 based Process Controller is the main circuit that has the LED 7 segment display for output and push keys for input. The old form of Human Machine Interface – HMI.

Digital to Analog Converter with uC Watchdog

My first observation of a very complex watchdog in action was an Agilent(hp) Benchtop Multimeter based on this 8048 family of 1st generation microcontrollers that did not even have a UART among many things.

At that time CMOS was just making an entry and FLASH memory was unheard of. The UV Eprom was the way firmware was set on these systems. These consumed a lot of power. 80C39 was the CMOS one.

The  4040 counter derives a slow clock from the 7555 timer. The counter has to be reset by firmware by periodically sending a reset pulse on port pin P2.7 to say “Alls Well”.

If the firmware or uC “hangs” or due to EMI or Spikes the uC gets into an endless loop. Then the “Alls Well” pulses stop coming. The 4040 keeps counting till Q10 output goes high and resets the uC or can we say Wakes it up rudely.

The D/A converter was used to get the 1-5 V to obtain 4-20 mA control Signal to operate the Actuators like a Motor Drive or Heaters in a Industrial Process control System.

This is a 9V power supply which will work even on power failure. It uses a rechargeable battery and regulators. A transformer with 15-0-15 AC volts output is required.

From my Power Electronic Circuits

Battery Backup Supply

In the first regulator U1 the output is lifted up by 1.4V and in the second regulator U2 by a resistor divider. In the second regulator the voltage across resistor R3 is 5V, so the current is 5V / 1K = 5mA this adds to the quiescent current of 5mA from the regulators ground terminal and flows into the resistors R1 and R2 in parallel which form 404 ohms, 10mA thru 404 ohms is 4V. So the output will be 5 + 4 = 9V. Note that the charge and discharge paths of the battery are separated with diodes.

This is a easy to build LED lamp circuit for Learning and building skills. This is the first draft schematic V 1.0. It will need improvements for Higher Power Lighting.

Perpetual Candle Project

Perpetual Candle - White LED Lamp on Ni-Cd

I will give a short summary, The LM317 here configured for around 6.4V DC. The Q3 BC547 limits the current, you can select R3 to suit, make it 1/2W. The Ni-Cd battery pack 1.2 * 4 will not get Over-Current or Over-Voltage due to this circuit.

The IRF540 Mosfet or any other equivalent you have around, along with Q2 BC547 forms a current source for the parallel 12 LED array. Ultra-bright White LED at 20mA each or use a 1W ready LED Chip. R4/R6 can be selected for the Max LED current.

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The input impedance of this module is very high, if U1 is OP07 it is in mega ohms, use CA3140 or LF356 fet input opamps to get 1 tera ohm input impedance, but for high gains OP07 is better as it is ultra low offset, this is a good amplifier for sensor outputs, as in a DC Circuit.

Non-Inverting Opamp Interactive Simulation

Non-Inverting Amplifier - Op-Amp Circuits

Vout = Vin * (Rf + Ri) / Ri

The Spice in Analog Design

The zener diodes protect the opamp inputs, R1 limits current during high voltage inputs and R1 and C1 form a filter to remove ac components C1 should be a plastic type as ceramic and electrolytic caps are leaky. A large C1 will slow the response time, the sum of Ri + Rf should be greater than 5k so that output is not loaded. also do not connect output to voltages more than vcc/vdd it will blow Opamp.

This supply gives both positive and negative outputs. Appropriate Fuses should be used to protect from fire hazard and overload of transformer.

Voltage Regulators LM7812 and LM317

You could use LM7824 or LM7815 or LM7812 for 24V, 15V and 12V respectively. You could use LM7924 or LM7915 or LM7912 for -24V, -15V and -12V respectively.

Dual Polarity Power Supply

The Filter capacitor C1 4700uF has an impedance of Xc = 1 / (2 * 3.14 * f * C) which comes to 0.6 ohms at 50 Hz.

Power Electronic Circuits

The impedance of the load at 2A for 24V is R = V / I that is 12 Ohms which is more than 20 times the impedance of the capacitor at 50 Hz. That means less than 1 / 20 of ripple current will flow thru the load. The Regulator also reduces the ripple a little.

This is a Test arrangement for Leakage Testing of Diodes on Reverse Bias. The leakage current indicates the ability of the diode to withstand higher voltages. An AutoTransformer or Variac can be used to vary the test voltage. Even Plastic capacitors can be tested for leakage this way.

High Resistance Indicator – del50004

Diode Reverse Bias Leakage Tester

Safety Precautions –
Use a Isolation 1:1 transformer for safety. This circuit has to be enclosed in a insulated cabinet. A Jig or Acrylic Safety Plate with clamp can be used to connect the diode. The voltage is only applied as long as a Mains two way push switch is pressed. This adds to the safety.

Build a DMM or Digital Multi Meter

Caution Instruction –
Use this with Low voltages like 24V AC for Learning. Do not Use it with High Voltage AC. If you are learning, first work with other circuits using batteries or Low Voltage Mains Adapters.

Voltage multipliers are used to obtain low current high voltage, from an existing AC Source. Step up transformers can be used, but the insulation problems and care that has to be taken for HV above 1kV, make it difficult. After SMPS technologies and Ferrites were developed, HV for CRTs was generated by blocking oscillators and step up Transformers at High Frequency AC.

Mains Voltage and Power Circuits

Voltage Doublers and Multipliers

Caution Instruction –

Use this with Low voltages like 24V AC for Learning. Do not Use it with High Voltage AC. If you are learning, first work with other circuits using batteries or Low Voltage Mains Adapters.
This circuit uses Diodes and Capacitors, just like the text book circuits.

More Reading –

Voltage Multipliers – The Creative Science Centre

Electronic Circuits

Electronic Design

Electronic Parts