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AC conversion and continuity buzzer test - del20012

U1A LF353 opamp turns on a buzzer when the voltage at  Test + falls very low indicating a short between Test + and Test - or a resistor less than 5 ohms.  The R9-R14 divider determines the minimum voltage that can be at Test + for buzzer to just turn on. The Opamp here is a comparator and R10 10 Meg gives a very small hysteresis so that there is no oscillation at threshold levels, that is when both inputs at same levels.The Zener is for protection and R6 to limit current.

Electrician Tool Continuity Tester

U2A and U1B opamps form a precision rectifier, note that this is not a true RMS rectifier circuit for that see some devices from Analog Devices. When you need to rectify a 200mV AC signal you cannot use a diode like 1N4148 as the diode turns on at 700mV so this circuit is used. 

AC conversion and
                        continuity buzzer test
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AC conversion and continuity buzzer test - del20012

The AC signal measurement is best to do with a True RMS convertor. This Type is able to quantify the Heating power of a AC voltage, includes all harmonics and Noise too.

AD636 - True RMS to DC Converter

This circuit above is just a precision rectifier with filter. It assumes a sine wave is being measured and is calibrated for such a measurement. A Triangle, sawtooth or square will give errors.

The Continuity tester is a Voltage comparator that helps electricians see if the Wire or Switch is a Open Circuit or Shorted. The Audible sound helps quick sorting or check, sometimes a Flashing LED will also help