This Circuit is a simple Analog to Digital Interface with a capability of 10 to 12 bits resolution. 10 bits means 1024 counts or parts of a full scale FS which is close to 3-1/2 1999 counts.
In this 1 V can be read as 1.000 V that means even 1mV can be resolved for FS of 1V.
The Caps C6 and others must be plastic multilayer low-leakage types for accuracy of reading.
Use all 1% MFR 100ppm or better resistors, Design gain of U1B for the Full Scale you want.
The Output Fout is a Frequency which is directly proportional to the measured voltage Vin.
The pulses can be isolated using opto-couplers to avoid ground loops or electric hazard.
An additional protection and scaling circuit at the input may be required for some sensors.