2N2646 based Voltage controlled SCR Pulser

A Center tap 50Hz Step Down Transformer with two diodes is used to get a train of Positive Sine Pulses at 100Hz which is applied to Q6 base via R51. 2N2646 is a unijunction transistor(UJT) in a TO-18 metal package. The control voltage or voltage proportional to error is fed to R56-Q3, The UJT drives a pulse transformer which provides isolation from the Load which the SCR bridge is controlling. This phase angle control gives a near Linear closed loop control for a SCR bridge which may be used in Electroplating or a Preregulator of a big power supply.

2N2646 based Voltage controlled SCR Pulser

AC-AC-SSR Solid State Relay

This is a AC Control Input AC Output SSR Solid State Relay. When a Process Controller has an AC output or a system generates an AC signal of above 100V AC to signal the load to turn on, this device can be used. A BTA40-600 and MOC3041 are used in this.

A high voltage plastic cap limits current to a bridge which generates a small DC from 230 V AC, this drives MOC3041. The rest is the same. It is better to use a DC control SSR where possible. This AC control SSR is used where only an AC control signal is available. The BTA series has the heatsink tab insulated from the Triac chip inside. The BTB needs electrical insulation to the heatsink.


These devices BTA40600 and MOC3041 make SSR’s very simple. They have proved very reliable and rugged in the field, overrate your designs, use heat sinks and seal the SSR with thermally conductive epoxy. Alumina with ciba araldite without any other filler or dye is the best way to hermitically seal.

Normally Closed AC SSR

This is a Normally Closed PCB Mount SSR. That means when DC Control input is low, the triac is ON, the output passes the load current to turn on small heater-motor-lamp or a bigger contacter-drive etc.

NC Solid State Relay or SSR

When input DC is high the output is OFF. This is also Optically Isolated from Mains. A Microcontroller output which is buffered by some driver can drive this relay. It is better that in big systems these SSR Modules can be on another PCB, to avoid mains wiring near Logic circuits. But this cannot be used for medical electronics, or critical applications. More reliability and visual isolation of voltages may be required for such equipment.

NC AC Load SSR DC control

NO-NC SSR Plastic Box

This was a Fire Retardant Plastic Box which was made for the SSR I/O Stackable Modules. DC Control for an AC Load. Usually it is to control another Big Three phase contactor;

Pneumatic or Steam Valve, Solenoids-Motors. When Mounted at the end of the PCB it offers over 2kV Isolation from the Digital Circuits. The Output 230V signals NO-NC, can control Light Loads like the Coil of a Big 230V Relay also called contactor.


It could be Mounted on a PCB by soldering or a Plugin Base. It is better to have Crimped connections or Terminals. A very good quality spring Loaded Socket may also work but it has to be rated for many operations. Things like Nickle Alloy Plated, Beryllium Copper were the Materials Jargon. A contact resistance in the Terminals, a mismatch of alloys, electrochemical reactions, Corrosive Fumes, Brine or High Humidity can build a Loose connection into a Dangerous Sparking Contact.

Not only the Functionality of the SSR will be affected in a Sparking Contact, but a Risk of a Fire Developing. When Inflammable Materials or Volatile Liquids are Present Nearby, the risk is even greater.

Read More – Solid State Relays SSR

Three Phase Solid State Relay

This is R-Y-B three phase 40A 440V AC Solid State Relay with 3-30 V DC Control Signal. It has Built in HeatSink and Fan. It is good for Controlling a Bank of heaters. This model could go upto 120A with SSR’s in parallel for Proportional Control. Solid State Relays SSR.

This is a Contacter replacement, it will switch R-Y-B phases. It is a high power SSR. In some places it is unwise to use an SSR, a Electromechanical Contacter will perform better. The merit of SSR is fast switching, no wear and tear. No dust humidity influence.

Three Phase SSR

Solid State Relay – Common

This is a DC controlled Solid State Relay which can turn 230V AC equipment on and off. The output is like a NO normally open contacts of a relay and have to be in series with the Load like any other switch.

Solid State Relay - Common

This should not be used for large inductive loads like big motors. The Q1 transistor limits the current thru the LED by providing an alternate path for more current. The DC input can be from 3V to 20V. The Triac can be chosen depending on current in the load. Look for datasheets and applications at STMicroelectronics for BTA41600 triacs. MOC3041 zero crossover opto-diacs.

Triac based Lamp Dimmer power control

This is a phase angle control of a Triac which is a evolution from an SCR. The 50 Hz or 60 Hz Sine wave of mains can be turned on at any point after the Zero Crossing
Triac based Lamp Dimmer power control
The Voltage ramps up in the sine wave which gives a near “Linear” slope which can be used to trigger the ON at a time delay after zero crossing when the voltage is zero. This is like a PWM but works on low frequency only. Some of the early SMPS(HV for TV and Mains Inverter) by Siemens were built around SCRs. Turning off a SCR is a difficult job for a designer, MOSFETS and IGBT are now used for PWM drive stages.

You can use it with a bulb to vary brightness of bulb, this is a live circuit it can give a shock, enclose in plastic box, the pot should have a plastic knob, use a fuse, you can also use it for temperature control of soldering irons.

The Source file in CadSoft EAGLE format is here del00004.zip