Switching Battery Charger with L296

This is a a circuit from my  Power Supplies Section.  There may be some documentation errors in my circuits. If you are used to building and troubleshooting circuits then it is ok.

This circuit is derived from an application note of L296, It is a Power Switching Regulator from ST Micro. U1A is wired as a differential amplifier and U1B a High Gain Comparator. C4 and C5 are parallel for lower ESR. Equivalent series resistanc Fast switching diode used is BYW80.

Switching Battery Charger with L296

L296 is a switch mode power controller here. In this NTE327 or 2N5038 is used to boost the current output. This transistor is both high current and fast switching. U1A, LM358 measures the load current by reading the voltage across shunt R6 and compared to a current limit setting at R14 using U1B to give a load current control. R7-R8 give a voltage feedback for voltage limit.

Use MFR 1% for all Resistors, 33E means 33 ohms, 22K means 22 kilo ohms, 1M is 1 megohm. 10T tp means ten turn trimpot. “Analog Ground” and “Digital Ground” must be linked at power supply only, avoid loops, let grounds radiate from a ground plane. Unused inputs of logic and opamps pull up or down to avoid oscillations and noise.

100kHz Half Bridge Convertor – SG3525

This is a SMPS Circuit application very close to the Application Note in the book SGS Motion Control Application Manual. This worked well. Read about SG2525 – SG3525 – PWM SMPS Regulator Chip.

Some Notes Related to the Project

  • In main circuit do not link different grounds.
  • Main circuit can be used both for 110 AC and 230 AC
  • Ferrites are partial conductors use proper insulation before winding.
  • For main transformer TRX2 use split bobbin for good/safe isolation.
  • Epoxy coated toroids have to be further insulated before winding.
  • Line of isolation between primary and secondary circuits should be explicit.
  • Primary components like Q1, Q2 tabs R5, R6 etc can give shock take caution.
  • Each main module is 500W and can be used in parallel for more current.
  • Q1 and Q2 should have appropriate isolated heatsinks TO220 type 50sq cm
  • Schottky diodes D5, D6 should have heatsinks TO220 type 100sq cm.
  • Diodes D5, D6 eg D83004 are TOP3 packages are used 2 in parallel.
  • For 200W and above R2=0.1e 5W in the main circuit fusible ceramic.
  • C10, C11… Add 4.7uF 100v more in parallel to reduce ripple.
  • C13, C14 can be 250V for better safety margin.
  • TRX1 SEC1 and SEC2 dot polarity is anti-phase if same phase danger!!

100kHz Half Bridge Convertor - SG3525
Zoom Image

Magnetics Design

All Transformers Isolation 1kV PRI To SEC / SEC To SEC / PRI,SEC To Core. Use Yellow Mylar Tape Insulation or better for all. Vacuum Impregnate all Magnetics in Epoxy or Varnish. All Power Tracks on PCB reinforce with Copper Braid.

TRX1 Mosfet Drive Transformer

T25.0 MGQ-5L Hitachi – Type Torroid – 100khz Signal

  • PRI1 20 Turns #22 Awg
  • SEC1 9 Turns #22 Awg
  • SEC2 9 Turns #22 Awg

486T250-3C8 Ferroxcube – SEC1 And SEC2 Antiphase

TRX2 Stepdown Invertor Transformer

EC52 Siemens/Hitachi – Can Be ETD/EER Cosmo Ferrites

  • PRI1 22 Turns 2 Layers (44 Turns) – 2* #16 Awg(18 Swg) In Parallel.
  • SEC1 4 Turns Ct Copper Strap 0.01″ * 0.8″ Copper Strap

Coper Strap/Ribbon used, cause Hi-Freq Skin Effects, PRI 2 Wires paralleled for same reason.
EC52-3C8 Ferroxcube Phillips

Trx3 Current Feedback Trx

T25.0 MGQ-5L Hitachi – Type Torroid – 100khz Signal

  • PRI1 1 Turn 4 Amps Max
  • SEC1 20 Turns #22 Awg CT.
  • Ceter Tap 10T-CT-10T

486T250-3C8 Ferroxcube

L1 Series 60A-80A Inductor

Type EC/ETD/EER EC42 Hitachi – Air Gap In Inductor Core Both Sides
100khz Power IF30-3C8 Ferroxcube – 6 Turns 4*#12 AWG In Parallel

4 Wires Of 12 AWG Twisted & Wound For 6 Turns (Use Less AWG For Less I)

TRX5 50hz Transformer Small

  • PRI1 & PRI2 115v
  • SEC1 24V 0.2A
  • JP2 2-3 Short 230V
  • PRI1 & PRI2 In Parallel For 110V
  • JP1 1-2 Short 230V 2-3 Short 110V

TRX4

This is A 10mH Common Mode Filter

The Reference Application on ST Half Bridge Convertor – SG3525

PCB Layout

The PCB of module will be added later, if i locate it. It is small and be designed easily.

5V -1A Power Supply using LM2575

A Power Transistor which is having a drop of 4 Volts across it and passing 3 amps thru it, may dissipate around 12 Watts of Heat, This is the problem in Series Regulators. While a Saturated Transistor or Mosfet with 1 Volts across and 3 Amps Thru will be just 3 Watts. But then a fully on transistor or mosfet cannot be controlled or regulated, for that we turn it ON and OFF very fast so that the right amount of current or voltage is delivered.

5V -1A Power Supply using LM2575

The way this is done is PWM – Pulse Width Modulation. In this the mosfet or transistor is switched ON-OFF at say 100 kHz, but the ON duration is varied to control the output. The longer the duration of ON time more energy or punch is transferred. Switching losses will be present depending on how fast the rise and fall times of the pulses are.

The Pulsed AC or Chopped DC can be smoothed to the Average with Inductors and Capacitors. The reactive pulses of the Inductor has to be absorbed by a Schottky Rectifier 1N5817 — 20V-1A fast switching diode with low switching losses.

This circuit is derived from an application note of LM2575, It is a Power Switching Regulator from National Semiconductor The details are here LM2575

An application note by On Semiconductor shows how this chip can be used to generate Negative Voltage Power Supplies from Positive Voltages.
LM2575-D.pdf

Digital 5V Power Supply using L296

This circuit is derived from an application note of L296, It is a Power Switching Regulator from ST. The advantage of using a switching regulator is that there is not much Heat Dissipation in this circuit.

Digital 5V Power Supply using L296

If you had to build the same with a series regulator, it would be very big due to external transistor and a huge heat sink. This circuit takes a small place on PCB, efficiency is high so power is saved and reliability of product improves, lastly the thermal gradients within the cabinet is avoided so that any form of drift or component specs variation can be avoided.

The Schottky rectifier BYW80 is used as it switches very fast 200V-20A-35nS. The Inductor and Capacitor is for the filter to get a ripple free DC from the Chopped DC output. There may be a small high frequency ripple riding on the DC signal of 5V in most SMPS circuits. So for very sensitive circuits use extra filters and shields.

The Current output is limited, and can be reduced further with a resistor from Pin 4 to ground. Also if the feedback to Pin 10 is thru a Voltage Divider then more voltage can be set at the output. See the datasheet and application notes for other design details and circuits.

ST Micro. The PDF datasheet of L296 – here.