SSR or Solid State Relay or Electronic Relay Connection Method. This is a Thyristor Based Normally Open 230V Switch that can be turned on / off at a fast rate. This switches at Zero Crossover .Built In Snubber reduces EMI and protects the SSR. USE SAME PHASE FOR I/P & O/P.
AC-AC-SSR Solid State Relay
- No moving parts hence no wear and tear.
- Dissipates Heat when in On Condition.
- Use adequate Heat Sink or SSR will fail. ( 10g / Amp)
- Dissipation is 1.5 Watts per Amp thru Load.
- Input to Output is optically isolated 2kV.
- This one is AC 230V Control AC 230V N.O. Output.
- Off state snubber Leakage is around 5 mA.
The Termination’s of High Current Lines going to Load must be very tight and crimped. Loose contacts will Spark and cause Fire. Fuse Rating of HRC Fuse – High Rupture Capacity (HRC) Fuse is Safe and Reliable. 5kW Heater at 230V is 5,000 / 230 in Amps of Fuse Rating.
It is called analog dial timer as it has no digital display, but the chip is digital it is CD4541. It is Mains operated, you could make on-delay or off-delay. By changing the caps and resistors or with even dip-switches you could get timing of few seconds to many hours. Circuit is Analog Timer 4541 .
Some timers energize the relay after a set delay on power start. Some start with relay energized and turn off after set time. Motors and big systems cannot take fast turn-on and turn-off, Some systems will require sections or modules to start one after another as they are interdependent. So Timers in automation were made to effect such delays, the early ones were mechanical clockwork.
The CD4541BC Programmable Timer is designed with a 16-stage binary counter, an integrated oscillator for use with an external capacitor and two resistors, output control logic, and a special power-on reset circuit. The special features of the power-on reset circuit are first, no additional static power consumption and second, the part functions across the full voltage range (3V¨C15V) whether power-on reset is enabled or disabled.
- Available division ratios 28, 210, 213, or 216.
- Increments on positive edge clock transitions.
- Built-in low power RC oscillator.
- Oscillator frequency range . DC to 100 kHz.
- Power on Auto reset initializes all counters.
This is an example of a cascaded or sequential timer, here two CD4541 are forming a two stage timer. You can add more in a chain, but better to use a microprocessor or Microcontroller for such a purpose. But make sure EMI-RFI immunity is high for these circuits or wrong resets and sets can make a machine like an Oven or Environment Chamber malfunction and even ruin the job.
Two Stage Sequential Timer – del90004
U5B a flip-flop is used for the control switches Start and Stop to prime or shutdown the sequential cycle. The first timer U2 sets the flip-flop or register U5A after a period T1, this register turns the relay on thru Q3. The second timer U4 which was triggered by the first will reset the U5A after time period T2, U5A then shuts down relay. U5A also then resets entire process thru U3C and U3D.
U1 CD4541 is a Timer with Long Duration Ability. This timer is started by a low pulse from earlier circuit, when the temperature goes above setpoint, a low state is at U2A inputs, this starts the timer. The timer output goes high after a preset time. U2C-D Flip flop is power on reset via cap C7. Even a manual ‘reset’ is used if required. This alarm toggle is ‘set’ when The temperature remains high even after the preset time period of U1.
Timer and Counter Modules – del90002
A digital counter monitors the number of times a process goes beyond a certain temperature limit over a long cycle of time. This circuit has a Analog Timer and Digital Counter. The Analog timer turns on an Alarm if the Temperature Limit transition is very long.
Here 4052 is used as an analog multiplexer, U3A TL062 opamp is wired as a 1mA Constant Current Source. It pumps 1mA into U2 4052 pin 13 X . Depending on BCD code on inputs A, B of 4052 the current is routed to any one of the four RTD 100E, whose one end is connected to X0-X3. The current then flows to GND thru the Platinum 100E resistance. The Y0-Y3 monitors the mV developed on RTD in tandem with X0-X3 positions. Like a ganged rotary switch. The Output mV at Y is the mV of Active Channel as selected by the BCD of 4029.
RTD Pt-100 Four Point Alarm – del90001
The BCD is provided by 4029 counter which is clocked by a 555. U5A cancels out the 100E mV (1mA * 100E) of a cold RTD and Amplifies the differential mV. This output of U5A is in proportion with measured temperature. U5B compares the mV that was obtained with a preset mV of POT1, which is a user setting called setpoint. The difference is amplified by U5B which is saturated by U3B comparator which adds a little hysteresis too. R7-C2 further dampen and slow the response. This finally drives Q2 to provide a Logic Signal indicating if temperature is below or above setpoint.
Four points in a Closed Loop Temperature Control System is Monitored and a Alarm set to go off when the temperature goes beyond the set limit.
his Circuit converts a voltage control output from a Process Controller to be converted into a Current Control if the AC-Drive or Valve needs a Current Control Signal.
Significance of Current Loop 4 to 20 mA Standard
This is a three wire voltage to current loop converter. The 1-5 V DC is attenuated and fed to pin 5 LM723 opamp section which tries to maintain the same voltage at pin 10 across the 10 E, thereby producing a open collector constant current sink proportional to the 1-5V input. By trimming the attenuator you can scale-calibrate 1-5V input to 4-20mA output for looping many instruments in series, like a controller, recorder or PLC. With a supply voltage upto 24V, three instruments can be looped. The connection to pin 6 is required to convert 0-1 input to 4-20mA.
All the transmitter circuits can be seen here. Industrial Process Control Circuits
This circuit was designed by me in the eighties, the 555 was for negative supply, The whole thing went into the anodized cast aluminuim head of a sensor.
How 4-20mA Works
This circuit is used to detect objects by reflected infrared light. It can be built into a cylindrical enclosure just like an inductive proximity switch.
Part of – InfraRed Detector for Proximity Switch
This is also useful as a level detector for colored liquids like oil. This has some immunity to ambient sunlight as it detects ac pulses.
Infrared Optical Proximity Switch
IC 555 is used as an astable oscillator and it flashes the Infra red LED D1 at a high speed, The object close to this LED reflects the light along with the ambient light which may also be sunlight.
IR Led’s and Diodes
The types available are various and polarity hard to detect even photo IR transistors can be used. The IR Led can be tested in diode mode of a DMM (battery should be in good condition) it should give around 1.1V drop in proper polarity.
Se a Related circuit here Optical Obstacle Switch.
An IR detector diode or photo diode can be tested in the same way the drop will be 0.5V at 1 feet from a 60W lamp (no sunlight), closing the IR photo diode with your hand will be an over range on DMM this will happen on proper polarity. the photo diode shows around 10k ohm resistance in daylight and in Mega ohms when covered also the photo diode detects light on reverse bias and used like that.