Power-Electronics (Page 2)

This is a mains 230V AC voltage indicator and is a LIVE CIRCUIT, so take care. The Resistor has to be a fusible ceramic wire wound and the capacitor 630V AC or higher capacity.

More at my Home Made Circuits.

Mains Voltage LED Indicator

This circuit has been drawn from my memory and i have not tried it out again, just see if it is ok and then try. You should use the fuse of 100mA a slow blow if you want but it is very important. This circuit has to be enclosed in a plastic sealed enclosure to avoid contact.

This is a mains 230V AC load current indicator and is a LIVE CIRCUIT, so take care. The Resistors have to be a fusible ceramic wire wound.

More at Mains Voltage and Power Circuits

Mains Current LED Indicator

This circuit has been drawn from my memory and i have not tried it out again, just see if it is ok and then try. You should use the fuse of 1A a slow blow if you want but it is very important. You can design the shunt R3 and Fuse rating as required by your load.

Note that this circuit is to be put in series with the load like an ammeter. If you put it across the supply like a voltmeter it will fuse out or burn out. This circuit has to be enclosed in a plastic sealed enclosure to avoid contact.

The circuit uses opto-coupler MOC3041 of Motorola and the Triac BTA16-600 of STMicro as a solid state switch or relay. Four Switches boost or buck the mains voltage, keeping output within limits.

Power Electronics Design Methods

It also uses the LM324 quad opamp from National Semiconductor which is low power and single supply. As the MOC3041 switches the Triac at zero crossover there is no inter-winding short of transformer on crossover hopefully, the control circuit is designed in such a way that more than one triac will not be turned on at a time, i would like you to give feedback.

555 multivibrator like power oscillator

This circuit is a design concept, not tested by me and i did it just to explain some ideas.

Solid-State Stabilizer Step up 110V AC

The triac will switch at zero cross over because of MOC3041, hence no problem of an interwinding short, but then control circuit may fail or malfunction, so use fuse as shown . Also a snubber made of a 47E resistor and 0.02uF 630V pl cap in series must be placed across each triac.


Battery and Energy Management

Use heatsinks for all parts that heat, air circulation. Use Presets with series resistor as required so that you can test or calibrate. This Stabilizer should not be used with Inductive loads like motors or solenoids it may be ok for lighting and small electronics. If input voltage is 230V put the two 110V windings in series in proper polarity. BTA16600 is a ST part, metal tab is electrically insulated, 16A and 600V.

All mains wiring and connections should be designed for high voltage and current, They should be isolated visually from control circuits by 10 mm or more.

It can Stabilize Mains voltage to around +/- 10% . It can be used for both 110V AC or 220V AC inputs with modifications. The Output is 220V AC. There is an overload, under voltage and over voltage trip circuit.

Mains Stabilty and Supply Regulation

U2A and U2B are two comparators which controls relays K2 and K3 Respectively. One Boosts the voltage (Step-up) when mains supply is low. The other Bucks the voltage (Step-down) when mains voltage goes beyond a limit.

UPS Power Inverter and DC to AC

U2C and U2D work like a window comparator to trip the unit above and below certain preset limits. This circuit is clubbed with a Mains control relay K1 which can be Turned ON-OFF with two pushbuttons.

Stabilizer Step up 110V AC to 230V AC 500VAThis circuit is a design i did, not tested by me as yet.With some tweaks and modifications it might work.

Put a 0.1uF 1KV pl cap across all relay contacts to avoid sparking. Relay current paths should be large and direct to supply, or when relay operates ground will lift and cause malfunction.All mains wiring and connections should be designed for high voltage and current, They should be isolated visually from control circuits by 10 mm or more. If input voltage is 230V put the two 110V windings in series in proper polarity.

Electric double layer capacitor an eFlywheel

Put one LED with resistor for boost and buck indication if required. Use Presets with series resistor as required so that you can test or calibrate. The 1M dead band or hysteresis resistor can be varied from 330K to 10M as performance demands, this resistor stops oscillation or chattering of relays.

This is an incomplete version of the power supply used for the Alertness Monitor with hourly LED Display. This circuit used a Dual Color LED. Green meant Alert and Red meant No Alert or acknowledge press.

Power Supply with Battery Backup

I can write here only in “Electronic English”. Focus on the tech not grimmer. It may be like Pascal with a touch of Acronyms, codes and circuit axioms.

The top part is a 5V regulator with 0.7 Diode boost, means 5.7 V DC. The battery was floating on this point above the zener Z4, that connection comes from outside. A protection fuse maybe needed in case Zener draws more current. The Zeners were test selected to get above 6V along with the diode.

The second supply is to drive the LED array and Relay. This second battery supply was needed to prevent the RAM from losing data and also the CMOS logic getting reset, when the relay solenoid operates. Even when the Display Now switch is pushed, the current is large and the pulse could reset digital circuit.

The battery was used very less, it worked during the power failures for short duration between mains and generator switching. This circuit is not meant for in situations when battery drains are high.

I will just explain part of this circuit. D9 and D10 provide a low cost -1.4 from -5 V. This is needed to reach near 0.00 for LM317 Min. setting. An LED also can be used with proper bias. Note that there is a Temperature Coefficient in ppm, see The Unusual Diode FAQ. but it may not matter upto 8 bits accuracy.

TIP2955, TIP3055 (NPN), TIP2955 (PNP) Complementary Silicon Power Transistors. It is a Darlington, that means good current gain. See Darlington transistor – Wikipedia. When current in R1 10E goes more than 50mA a voltage of 50mA X 10E = 500mV is applied across Emmiter-Base junction. So lower than 500mV no bias the tap is turned off, 500mV-700mV the tap starts turning on depending on type of transistor. The transistor is like a water Tap. So TIP2955 carries the major current burden thru the load allowing LM317 to do the decision making when to turn-on or off. It is analog control, it is not On-Off but linear-proportional. The LM317 is very cool as the burden is passed off to TIP2955 who will need a heatsink to keep going and deliver the power you want.

WorkBench Dual Power SupplyPut the filter caps appropriately. The Hum-Noise will be filtered. The cap after the regulator should be a small guy. The main filter cap after the Bridge can be as big as your cabinet or budget.

If you build it and wire it without designing a PCB, then make all wiring and connection very sound. The test of this ability you can know easily, If your project stops working after the last screw of the cabinet is tightened, Then we need to improve.

This is a Regulated Power Supply based on the LM317 IC. It will need a Boost Power Transistor and heatsink for higher currents. It is a versatile building block for stable instrumentation supplies. Consumer Electronic gadgets can use a SMPS chip. In case you wish to use a SMPS for a Precision Instrumentation Block, then take extreme care on Shielding and EMI-RFI.

LM317 based Regulated Power Supply

This is a General Purpose Chip, Series Regulation. It can be varied or trimmed. There is an Internal temperature compensated reference. The minimum trim value is around 1.2. In case you want a Low value voltage like 0.5 with a good current, then use a good negative supply to offset the 1.2 V.

The transformer can be s Split Bobbin with Pri-Sec copper shield foil. This can be earthed along with the metal enclosure. C4 sends any hi-freq components to earth. It is better if you do not earth the ground but use such capacitors. A Supply should simulate a a battery with both ends floating wrt Earth. A option to eartth the ground is fine. This also helps the user to configure his own dual supplies.

Q1 and R5 form a Short Circuit OR current fold back OR constant current mechanism. TP1 can be used to vary the output voltage. Better use something like a Bourns 10T trimpot. An open preset may introduce a noise due to dust and vibration. I don’t remember why i added a zener DZ1, a diode may suffice.

PDF file is here – LM317 – Variable Power Supply