CD4046 is a PLL or phase lock loop, it mainly consists of a VCO and phase comparators. This is a component in FM demodulation and modulation.
Mixed and Interface Circuits
It is used in a closed loop control to maintain a stable frequency. The Circuit above is good for learning the full use of a small Dual Trace Scope. The Circuit has both Analog and Digital areas and is a part of communication.
Read the pages above for building more Knowledge on PLL
LM311 is a comparator, It operates from single 5V supply or dual supplies,input current 150 nA, 50 V-50 mA output drive capability. TTL-CMOS compatible output.
Even LM324 used as a comparator Water Level Indicator with Reed Relays
The Output is open collector so it can sink current but cannot source, a totem pole output can source and sink. In this Circuit R2 is the source or pull-up.
The Output being high or low depends on which input is more dominant or positive. If + or non-inverting input is more positive than the – inverting input then output of LM311 is high impedance or high Z as output transistor of LM311 is turned off, but output goes high due to R2 pull-up 1K, so you can apply a load of 10K and above for source. When the – input or inverting input is more positive, output goes Low as transistor turns on, now a current of upto 50mA can sink here, a LED or Relay can be driven.
Mixed Circuits Analog with Digital
On turn on C2 capacitor is discharged and pin 3 the inverting input is at a lower potential than pin 2 the non-inverting which is at 2.5V. Hence output goes high and C2 starts charging thru R5, When C2 charges a little beyond 2.5V pin 3 is more dominant and output goes low now, this slowly discharges the C2 bringing the voltage at pin 3 again below 2.5V so output goes high again. This process goes on, hence it oscillates. The charging and discharging is at the rate of R5 * C2 approx. , R3 serves as hysteresis or feedback to ensure clean turn on and off.
This circuit is based on a very old application note from exar, in this the frequency is fixed by IC1 and IC2 -P1 controls the duty cycle. you need to compute the R and C values to get what you need, LM555 data sheet.
You have to study the circuit and do something more innovative perhaps, just copying is ok for learning but it will get you nowhere, so learn and then innovate, the eagle circuit is given below so you can learn by editing it, also design a PCB with it, and you can even make a PCB at home to learn, but it is always good to get PCBs done by a PCB vendor, but you should understand his problems, then you will design well, so make a few PCBs.
Edit the circuit eagle cad file del00012.zip
This is a unregulated supply for low power circuits. You may be able to regulate the outputs with zeners or small regulators like 78L05.
The transformer can be hand wound in a mini ferrite pot core. you can use 2N2222 or any other fast transistor. The transformer should have 1KV isolation. The dot polarity of TR1 should be properly observed, else it may fail to oscillate or give output.
Simple WorkBench Dual Power Supply – del20033
Diode should be fast recovery type, for less than 100mA use 1N4148. transformer, pri-20-20, sec-60-60, a SWG-AWG to suit the current you
design for, any fast switching transistor would work, no regulation, use regulators like 78L12 if you want, circuit like multivibrator used for flashing LED lights.
The Source file in CadSoft EAGLE format is here del00010.zip
U1 7555 is a CMOS version of 555. The 555 here is in Astable Oscillator mode, C1 and C4 are decoupling capacitors 0.1uF value, ceramic disc.
Mixed and Interface Circuits
The output is around 100kHz, If C3 is plastic or mica the frequency output will be stable with temperature. It is better to use a crystal oscillator.
The 555 output is fed to clock input of 4040, the output of 555 will be a square wave, on every high to low transition (falling edge or negative transition) the counter increments by one and the output is 12 bit binary.
Read more at my Digital Timers, Counters and Clocks
If input frequency is F the final output at Q12 is F/4096. The period T = 1/F.
If you make the 555 run at 1Hz, C3 around 7uF, Then this circuit becomes a long duration timer, the Q12 period will be 4096 seconds or 68 minutes.
This is the Analog front end of the 80C39 Process Controller. The analog input is protected by a Zener barrier, low leakage. You could use clamping diodes too.
The non-inverting low-offset amp offers high input impedance. After further amplification it reaches the VCO LM331. The pulse train from the VCO reaches the uC port and is gated and measured by the MCS48 firmware. The voltage is deduced from the Frequency or Pulse width.
You can get a resolution near to a 8-10 bit A/D converter. It does not work for negative voltages. It is a low cost Voltmeter or Process Display solution.
80C39 and MCS48 based Process Controller is the main circuit that has the LED 7 segment display for output and push keys for input.
This shows how to OR gate two 555, when one 555 cycles at a low frequency a valve turns on an off, the second 555 stretches the ON duration of the pulse with a diode OR gate.
Digital Timers Counters and Clocks
The OR output uses sample and hold to get the stable analog data from a sensor after the actuator has gone OFF, this ensures correct reading.
555 is a fundamental Mixed Signal Circuit as it can be made into a VCO using Pin-5. If you see old exar databooks, you can see 555 and PLL and Tone decoders all applications compiled in one base. I feel the Venerable Signetics 555 “Architecture” and Intersil ICL8038 ‘CMOS’ were inspiration behind early communication chip designs, Moving from Bakelite Telephones to Compact Push Button Electronic Phones and more.