This article will explain the way a simple transistor based current source is designed, this will give an idea on how some components can be used in a practical way to make the circuit do some function, the objective is not design but to become familiar with the basic ideas.
Design of a Constant Current Source
In the circuit the LED is used as a reference so to keep it cool a 2.2K is chosen. (20V – 1.6V) / 2.2K = 8.3mA on the high side and when voltage is 10V the current will be 3.8mA min.
You should know that the LED forward drop can change with ambient light as it is photo sensitive and will vary with temperature.
The circuit can be improved by using a zener in place of the LED or better still a temperature compensated reference like LM336.
Operating Current of LM336 is 400uA to 10mA, 20V The max. voltage 20V / 3.3K = 6mA. so within limits. Then you can compute the rest, wire it up to see if your design works.
The Edsion Filament lamp may be less popular, but it is the most cost-effective light even today. It is very affordable, The light is soothing to the eyes and best of all gives a warm feeling.
Sometimes due to the mains being restored when bulb is on, or a rapid flick of switch, blows it. This may be due to the cold filament resistance which is low, allowing a huge inrush current.
LED Lighting – The Future is Here
The problem can be solved with a soft start based on thyristor or mosfet using PWM etc. The circuit here is a low cost solution which may help a bit in reducing the inrush cold current Protection from long duration high voltages is also required but will make circuit more complex.
Now why would anyone spend for a R-C network for a bulb, you could as well buy a new bulb. But I once got a back sprain while replacing a bulb in a hurry, So the price of the bulb alone is not the issue.
CFL Lamps and Simple Inverter
The two diodes 1A form a AC path with a switching delay of diodes, The R-C network is for soft start. The Varistor-Thermistor has a cold resistance 4.7E which reduces as it warms up. If switch is flicked rapidly or power fluctuates, then varistor cannot help as its response is slow. The 10E resistor ceramic fusible wirewound resistor and C1 does the job of absorbing .
This circuit has not been tested for long times at multiple places, so i am not sure of its performance.