Thermocouple is the most common sensor in Industrial Temperature Measurement. The Signal Conditioning involves Cold Junction Compensation and High Gain DC Amplification. The output of a Themocouple is in millivolts.
The OP07 is a low offset 75uV opamp, here it is used to amplify the output of a Thermocouple, the gain of this stage is high. The zeners are to protect any high voltage at input zapping the opamp.
The Resistor R6 limits the current. The zeners should be low leakage or use clamping pull-up and pull-down diodes to +5 and -5 respectively.
The RC low-pass filter formed by R6 and C2 reduce the mains hum or 50 Hz pickup of long thermocouple cables laid close to high current heater wiring. R1 is a offset null use or add if required. R11 is gain control of OP07. The TL072 is a FET input opamp used here as a summing amp.
Blind Dial Proportional Temperature Controller
Adding one more inverting amp with some gain to the output of this circuit can give you a 1-5V suitable for ADC or PC analog I/O cards. C1 also serves to filter, it is an integrator here. It suppresses EMI and RFI from motors, contacters etc., R13 sets an output value for 0mV input.
The 0-1V to 4-20 mA Converter published earlier is a current sink, Here is a circuit that is a voltage to current converter but with a current source.
You can use a LM358 or LM324. The first opamp is a Voltage to Current with a sink output. That current creates a varying voltage w.r.t the 12V DC supply, this varying voltage is mirrored by the second opamp across the source output resistor. This way a constant current is obtained with a sourcing output. The control elements are small signal high gain transistors. Any suitable equivalent can be used. Even the opamp can be chosen by the precision and application you want.
In this form of feedback. way to understand …. “Op-Amp drives the output to maintain both inputs at the same level” and also the “Output takes the polarity of the dominant input” and lastly “dominant means, more positive”. +5 is more Dominant than +3 or 0 or -2. Then -3 is more dominant than -12. See which is more positive.
Long distance of current loop may need higher voltage and lower source resistor value. Then the output transistor needs to change, if you use 24V DC then that voltage should not reach opamp. Design needs to foresee all possibilities of I/O troubles, as these are wired by a customer, mistakes happen. Hence, Industrial Designs have to be rugged.
This is a DC controlled Solid State Relay which can turn 230V AC equipment on and off. The output is like a NO normally open contacts of a relay and have to be in series with the Load like any other switch.
This should not be used for large inductive loads like big motors. The Q1 transistor limits the current thru the LED by providing an alternate path for more current. The DC input can be from 3V to 20V.
The Triac can be chosen depending on current in the load. Look for datasheets and applications at STMicroelectronics for BTA41600 triacs. MOC3041 zero crossover opto-diacs.
Read more at my main page – Solid State Relays – SSR I used to make them long ago.