This circuit changes the gain of opamp U1B in four steps or segments. It can be used to get a linear output from most transducers to 1% levels.U1A is a amplifying buffer use it to boost the signal to the required level.
The resistor values i have put are for an imaginary transducer, you have to design them. The buffered input signal is compared to reference switching points by LM339.
Temperature Measurement and Control
LM339 changes the gain resistors of U1B thru the mux switch 4066. JP1 to JP4 can select either amplification or attenuation of signal. The resistor switched by 4066 can be across R1 or R2 based on JP1 to JP4.
You may have to input transducer values into a spreadsheet and draw a graph. Then divide the graph into 5 segments and deduce the switch points and gain.
A, B, and C are the Digital Control for x, y and z input and output pairs.The voltage at Vinx is stored in C1 when A goes high, when A is low the voltage stored in C1 is read by buffer U2A.
It could be used in DMM circuits as Analog Memory DMM range, AC-DC mode, logic control
Another application of Mux 8 Channel 4-20mA Analog Multiplexer
The stby or standby input should be low when sample and hold is operating. If stby is taken high then C1 Cap is isolated and leakage is minimum. The supply of +/- 7.5V is chosen as OFF resistance of 4053 is high at this supply.
This is the standard configuration on how to Interface a uC like 8051 to PC RS232 with MAX232A. The UART or Serial port was not present in 8049/8749 chips which were the ancestors of 8051/8031. Pages of code were needed to make a software UART in MCS-48. The 8051 integrated the hardware UART and short commands made it tick. The most important innovation which made uC popular was the C in 80C31. C is for CMOS. This made the chip work cooler and work on even batteries and small power supplies.
80C51, SBC, Firmware and Circuits
The 8749 and 8751 are the UV EPROM type of uC. With limited erase/write cycles. The FLASH revolution changed every thing, you could update firmware over a phone line modem. Even without Ethernet, the firmware could be updated by making every embedded device a node on the EPABX. Now TCP/IP and Wi-Fi makes it all very easy.
Read also –
A sample and hold is like an analog memory. If The digital control A is low 4066 switch is open, and when A is high switch is closed. U2B is a buffer so as to ensure quick charging of C1 thru 4066 on resistance of 100E.
Mixed and Interface Circuits
U2A is a FET input opamp buffer which does not load or drain the cap C1. When A goes high the input analog sample is stored in C1. A has to be high for say 10*1uF*100E = 1mS, so that a proper stable sample is stored. When A is low C1 undergoes very slow discharge as opamp input resistance and 4066 off resistance is in giga ohms. The accuracy of reading Vout falls with respect to time due to leakage currents.
The Edsion Filament lamp may be less popular, but it is the most cost-effective light even today. It is very affordable, The light is soothing to the eyes and best of all gives a warm feeling.
Sometimes due to the mains being restored when bulb is on, or a rapid flick of switch, blows it. This may be due to the cold filament resistance which is low, allowing a huge inrush current.
LED Lighting – The Future is Here
The problem can be solved with a soft start based on thyristor or mosfet using PWM etc. The circuit here is a low cost solution which may help a bit in reducing the inrush cold current Protection from long duration high voltages is also required but will make circuit more complex.
Now why would anyone spend for a R-C network for a bulb, you could as well buy a new bulb. But I once got a back sprain while replacing a bulb in a hurry, So the price of the bulb alone is not the issue.
CFL Lamps and Simple Inverter
The two diodes 1A form a AC path with a switching delay of diodes, The R-C network is for soft start. The Varistor-Thermistor has a cold resistance 4.7E which reduces as it warms up. If switch is flicked rapidly or power fluctuates, then varistor cannot help as its response is slow. The 10E resistor ceramic fusible wirewound resistor and C1 does the job of absorbing .
This circuit has not been tested for long times at multiple places, so i am not sure of its performance.
This indicates like LM3914 in dot-mode. It is a drawing i made made to troubleshoot a gadget, around two decades ago. Strangely it had a echo of a design i had made into a 7107 dpm years before that. Now i am scanning all my drawing and notes, useful or not. Clean or with errors. Many Errors = 1 Blunder. Some projects i made have been expensive Blunders. So see them with a skeptic eye, fix them, try them. Thats all for now.
See the Circuit Full Size – Microohm Meter with LED Analog Bar
This has a 9V battery power. The 555 spins and a negative voltage for Opamp is created. This is a Low Offset amp of OP37 of Precision Monolithics, Inc PMI an early innovator. This diff-amp amplifies the uV of a 4 wire resistance measurement.
Now the current pump is the 2N2222 you see above the OP37. The FET and 555 do synchronous rectification. The LM324 is the Indicator and Analog to LED Dot-Bar Converter. The probes are Gold Plated, or use solid gold pins if you have them in plenty.
A PC based Analog Voltmeter. The Printer Port or Parallel Port Interface is used to acquire high resolution analog data using ICL7135. This is a method of getting analog data into your PC. This is only of Educational Value. Applications include Data Loggers and PC based Process Monitors, chart recorders. (USB, Wireless Interfaces and Tablet Computers are in vogue today
ICL7135 to Printer port Interface
The four Digit Drive outputs and four BCD outputs of the Multiplexed Display Driver of 7135, along with A-D status output which is also four, are routed to four input pins on printer port via three 74HCT373 Digital Switches. This is because we have less Input pins on Port and 4 are shared by making one 74HCT373 transparent and others High Impedance when PC takes a reading. So the three sets of four outputs of 7135 can be read sequentially.
74HCT139 U9A which is controlled by the PC program can select U3, U4 or U5 for sending data to 4 pins on printer port. Data sent on the eight output pins of printer port can be latched by U10B into U6. This eight outputs of U6 can drive relays or lamps.
The ICL7135 details can be seen here 41/2 A/D with BCD ICL7135 . This Mixed device was far ahead of its times, a product of Intersil.