Simple Sample and Hold with CD4066

A sample and hold is like an analog memory. If The digital control A is low 4066 switch is open, and when A is high switch is closed. U2B is a buffer so as to ensure quick charging of C1 thru 4066 on resistance of 100E.

Simple Sample and Hold with CD4066

Mixed and Interface Circuits

U2A is a FET input opamp buffer which does not load or drain the cap C1. When A goes high the input analog sample is stored in C1. A has to be high for say 10*1uF*100E = 1mS, so that a proper stable sample is stored. When A is low C1 undergoes very slow discharge as opamp input resistance and 4066 off resistance is in giga ohms. The accuracy of reading Vout falls with respect to time due to leakage currents.

Edison Bulb Life Extender

The Edsion Filament lamp may be less popular, but it is the most cost-effective light even today. It is very affordable, The light is soothing to the eyes and best of all gives a warm feeling.

Edison Bulb Life Extender

Sometimes due to the mains being restored when bulb is on, or a rapid flick of switch, blows it. This may be due to the cold filament resistance which is low, allowing a huge inrush current.

LED Lighting – The Future is Here

The problem can be solved with a soft start based on thyristor or mosfet using PWM etc. The circuit here is a low cost solution which may help a bit in reducing the inrush cold current Protection from long duration high voltages is also required but will make circuit more complex.

Now why would anyone spend for a R-C network for a bulb, you could as well buy a new bulb. But I once got a back sprain while replacing a bulb in a hurry, So the price of the bulb alone is not the issue.

CFL Lamps and Simple Inverter

The two diodes 1A form a AC path with a switching delay of diodes, The R-C network is for soft start. The Varistor-Thermistor has a cold resistance 4.7E which reduces as it warms up. If switch is flicked rapidly or power fluctuates, then varistor cannot help as its response is slow. The 10E resistor ceramic fusible wirewound resistor and C1 does the job of absorbing .

This circuit has not been tested for long times at multiple places, so i am not sure of its performance.

Microohm Meter with LED Analog Bar

This indicates like LM3914 in dot-mode. It is a drawing i made made to troubleshoot a gadget, around two decades ago. Strangely it had a echo of a design i had made into a 7107 dpm years before that. Now i am scanning all my drawing and notes, useful or not. Clean or with errors. Many Errors = 1 Blunder. Some projects i made have been expensive Blunders. So see them with a skeptic eye, fix them, try them. Thats all for now.

See the Circuit Full Size – Microohm Meter with LED Analog Bar

Microohm Meter with LED Analog Bar

This has a 9V battery power. The 555 spins and a negative voltage for Opamp is created. This is a Low Offset amp of OP37 of Precision Monolithics, Inc PMI an early innovator. This diff-amp amplifies the uV of a 4 wire resistance measurement.

Now the current pump is the 2N2222 you see above the OP37. The FET and 555 do synchronous rectification. The LM324 is the Indicator and Analog to LED Dot-Bar Converter. The probes are Gold Plated, or use solid gold pins if you have them in plenty.

Interface ICL7135 Voltmeter to PC

A PC based Analog Voltmeter. The Printer Port or Parallel Port Interface is used to acquire high resolution analog data using ICL7135. This is a method of getting analog data into your PC. This is only of Educational Value. Applications include Data Loggers and PC based Process Monitors, chart recorders. (USB, Wireless Interfaces and Tablet Computers are in vogue today

ICL7135 to Printer port Interface

The four Digit Drive outputs and four BCD outputs of the Multiplexed Display Driver of 7135, along with A-D status output which is also four, are routed to four input pins on printer port via three 74HCT373 Digital Switches. This is because we have less Input pins on Port and 4 are shared by making one 74HCT373 transparent and others High Impedance when PC takes a reading. So the three sets of four outputs of 7135 can be read sequentially.

ICL7135 to Printer port Interface

74HCT139 U9A which is controlled by the PC program can select U3, U4 or U5 for sending data to 4 pins on printer port. Data sent on the eight output pins of printer port can be latched by U10B into U6. This eight outputs of U6 can drive relays or lamps.

The ICL7135 details can be seen here 41/2 A/D with BCD ICL7135 . This Mixed device was far ahead of its times, a product of Intersil.

AD590 based Temperature Sensor

Learn how to use the AD590 to measure environment temperatures for display, logging or cold junction compensation.

The voltage at the point 1 of R4 will be :Vo=( 1+ ( 10K/22K)) * Vref = 3.63V as nominal Vref is
2.5V.AD590 is a current source which gives 1 uA / kelvin, It is independent of the voltage across the device. you can treat it like a current source or sink or impedance. total voltage across AD590 is 5V as opamp pin 2 is at virtual ground.

Analog Circuits – OpAmp, Signal Condition, Mixed Signal.

AD590 based Temperature Sensor

This is the way you try to understand the design.

The AD590, here is a constant current sink as cathode goes to -5. The current it sucks away or drains from node pin 2 of OP07 is 1uA/ kelvin. at 0 deg C the current drained is 273 uA at 26 deg C it is 300uA.

You know according to theory that the amount of current entering the node, is equal to the amount of current leaving the node. do not look at voltages now, look at the currents. the AD590 drinks 273uA from Node pin 2 of OP07 at 0 deg C. Now no current can come from opamp OP07 pin 2 as resistance is in giga ohms and leakage in pico amps. now the pot R5 and resistor R4 are just in series and connected to 3.63 V as established earlier. The TL431 is a shunt regulator with reference and has a low impedence. Now the R5 + R4 combination should not load the TL431, that is not the case as 3.6 / 10K = 360uA .

By varying R5 pot you can pump 3.6 / 10K = 360uA down to 130uA when R5 is max into node pin 2 of OP07. This pot will be calibrated with AD590 in ICE to give a 0 mV output of the Op07. When calibrated R5+R4 pump 273 uA into node pin 2 of op07. this is sucked away by the AD590 which is draining 273uA at 0 deg C. This leaves the pin 2 at zero potential as currents leaving = currents entering.

Now to understand the opamp functioning.

The pin 2 of opamp is a 0 potential as calculated above and pin 3 also is at zero pulled down by R7. Now as both inputs are at same potential the output of opamp also is zero. The feedback resistors R1 and R2 will carry no current as both their ends are at 0. the Vout is now 0 mV and AD590 is on a block of ICE and opamp is stable.

If pin 2 (-) becomes more dominant or positive than pin 3 (+) the output swings negative. If pin 3 (+) becomes more dominant or positive than pin 2 (-) the output swings positive. The opamp on feedback tries to maintain both the inputs at the same potential. This thumb rule can be used to make opamp oscillate, amplify or compute.

Now what happens when the AD590 is removed from the block of ICE. It comes to room temperature say 26 deg C which means 300uA. Now the AD590 demands to draw 300uA from node pin 2 of OP07. The R4 + R5 from 3.6 V can give 273uA as it is fixed, not a uA more. The rest which is 300 – 273 = 27uA leads to a drop in potential at pin 2 and it turns negative. as demand is greater than supply. which makes pin 3 which is at zero more positive than pin 2. ( theory : 0 is positive compared to -1) as pin 3 is more dominant opamp swings positive as per thumb rule. and a current starts flowing thru R1 + R2 till the current reaches 27uA. at this point the extra current 27uA drawn by AD590 is supplied by opamp thru R1+R2. The Pin 2 now comes to 0 as currents leaving = currents entering.

Test & Measurement, Instrumentation

At this point the voltage at opamp output is given by ( R1 + R2 ) * 27uA = 270mV (assume R1+R2 is 10K after calibration) now opamp gives 10mV per deg C.as opamp now is a closed loop control the rise and fall in temperature, results in AD590 current variation which produces a proportional OP07 output.

Now the explanation above is in steps but all that happens in real time in an instant.

555 watchdog for uC and uP systems

When the microcontroller hangs due to a spike, EMI or RFI etc. the 7555 will reset the uC, if proper power supply design is done above circuit can also give a clean power on reset, the above circuit you should modify to suit your design.

80C39-8749 MCS-48 Examples and code

Better still use a uC with watchdog built in like some atmel chips, or use the watchdog chips from maxim which can also do RAM battery management.

The circuit was developed over a old TI application note, 7555 i think fairchild may be making it, 7555 is CMOS version of 555 timer, advantage of 7555 is that it can go to higher frequency, low power consumption, the disadvantage is its output drive mA is not as good as 555. now why i put it here was that you can see how charge and discharge paths are separated with diodes.

555 watchdog for uC and uP systems

See Larger Circuit. 555 Watchdog
Edit the circuit eagle cad file del00013.zip,

PLL using 4046 – Phase Locked Loop

CD4046 is a PLL or phase lock loop, it mainly consists of a VCO and phase comparators. This is a component in FM demodulation and modulation.

Mixed and Interface Circuits

PLL using 4046

It is used in a closed loop control to maintain a stable frequency. The Circuit above is good for learning the full use of a small Dual Trace Scope. The Circuit has both Analog and Digital areas and is a part of communication.

Read the pages above for building more Knowledge on PLL