80C39 and MCS48 based Process Controller

The Early Microcontroller : 80C39 is a CMOS Version of 8048 the one that preceded 8031-8051. MCS48 is the set for that, MCS51 is the current set.

Here is an example project for 80C39-8748-8749 microcontroller. This code was written by me, and it works. But the documentation is not complete or may have errors.

80C39 and MCS48 based Process Controller

Process Controller code here 80C39 Code for MCS48 (editable spreadsheet online)

The circuit for these are on this page along with other circuits. This may be difficult to put together now. But the code and hardware is near compatible to 8051 uC. Now there are may types of ADC and uC.

This was supposed to have Analog in and Analog out. Some parts of the circuit may be in the 80C51 page. This has ramp-up and ramp-down settings for the Increment and Decrement buttons. This helps setting setpoint quickly. There is also debouncing for the pushbutton.

Two Set Point – Display Card – Process Controller

This is the pcb board details of a Two Set Point Controllers for any process, shown here for temperature. For new types of transducers or input types, module card has to be designed or modified. The other cards remain the same.

The cabinet of these process controllers were made of steel for shielding, but the display card would still pickup EMI in some cases. These were more in instances where the Instrument supply was derived from the motor 3-phase supply. Instrumentation Supplies 230V AC must come from a Lighting Circuit of another supply arm, this has to come after conditioning with EMI-RFI filters and Servo Stabilizers or UPS if possible. This way the load spikes-glitches due to turn-on and turn-off of Motors and Heaters. dont act as a feedback to instruments. If line-load regulation is bad and mains voltage unstable, more problems can be expected.

This front panel shielding was done with a semi farady cage, by having a ground plane on the front of PCB, facing operator. This is just the negative of solder mask, but is the copper layer in front, no pth processing, even though it is two layer pcb. The solution worked well.

Display Card - Shield

Proportional Temperature Controller

Proportional Temperature Controller

This is a Proportional Controller where the setpoint is derived from a Thumbwheel switch.

Proportional Temperature Controller

The conversion of Thumb-wheel Digital Data to Analog mV is similar to R-2R Weighted Resistor Network. In this case it is a 1-2-4-8 Binary Weighted Resistor Network. It has no Digital Components.

You can see an example circuit below for digit weights you just use like 10K-100K-1M etc. There is a problem of procuring 8M Resistors, so use series parallel combinations, avoid open presets. Trimpots can be used but then it raises the BOM cost.

1-2-4-8 Kilo Ohms may load opamp for high output levels. 1-2-4-8 Mega Ohms may be ok in the lowest digit. Greater than 10M designs are possible only in lab, not in commercial or industrial domains.

Binary Weighted Resistor Network

Make such R networks, solder array on thumbwheel, in some thumbwheels remove diodes or other connections. Club all of them, thumbwheels. One opamp will do. Use -2.5 V for positive mV output. The resistors should be close to 0.3% at least.

This Binary Resistor Network can also work with Digital CMOS Chips like CD4029. Use these chips on a separate supply, which is just a LM336 – 5V device. A digital thumb-wheel also can be used.

In this controller you can see a sensor open indication. When the sensor breaks, the temperature controller may continue to turn on the actuators or heaters, It may even Oscillate. So when a high impedance is detected in the sensor input terminals, the output relay is shut off and a LED is turned on to simplify operator’s diagnosis.

Mount the controller a distance away from heaters, ac-drives and vibrating parts. Avoid direct sunlight on controller, fix controller in a sealed control panel. Earth the point where the thermocouple senses heat. Some heaters leak. The machine has to be earthed.

Relative Humidity Table for Hygrometer

When i made a wet bulb and dry bulb Digital Humidity Meter, a chart for evaluating RH was made. This chart is in PDF format below.

Table of Relative Humidity or RH 370 Kb PDF

The Sensors used were Two RTD PT-100 and Two 48*96 Digital Indicators. The Wet bulb had a Moist Wick Compartment where water had to be refilled periodically. A small Fan was used to get a faster Response.

When Weaving Textiles, Humidifiers or Atomizers are used to maintain the Humidity of the Work Area where the Looms are running. A Horse Hair Hygrometer is used to Manually Monitor and Regulate the Humidity. In Offices where the Air Conditioning needs a Humidity regulation the method used to Determine Humidity is by using a Wet and Dry Bulb Hygrometer or a Sling Psychrometer.

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