+5 to -5 using a 555 Astable Multivibrator

This is a very simple -5V supply using one 555, useful for analog blocks using FET Opamps using low power. This circuit came up when i had to design limited by inventory. It worked well for its need. It converts Positive Five Volts to Negative Five Volts to create a dual supply.

 This +5 to -5 using a 555 Astable Multivibrator.is not a high efficiency design, in fact it cannot take a heavy load. Circuits having some CMOS Opamps and a A/D convertor is ok. Even very small battery designs must avoid this circuit.

This suits well when you want to power an analog amp which has to measure voltages which swing on either sides of zero. It can be used in a LCD based portable measuring instrument running on a rechargeable 9V battery.

Powering a strain gauge amp may be one use, another may be like a RTD temperature meter for -50 to +150 deg C.

LM317 based Regulated Power Supply

This is a Regulated Power Supply based on the LM317 IC. It will need a Boost Power Transistor and heatsink for higher currents. It is a versatile building block for stable instrumentation supplies. Consumer Electronic gadgets can use a SMPS chip. In case you wish to use a SMPS for a Precision Instrumentation Block, then take extreme care on Shielding and EMI-RFI.

LM317 based Regulated Power Supply

This is a General Purpose Chip, Series Regulation. It can be varied or trimmed. There is an Internal temperature compensated reference. The minimum trim value is around 1.2. In case you want a Low value voltage like 0.5 with a good current, then use a good negative supply to offset the 1.2 V.

The transformer can be s Split Bobbin with Pri-Sec copper shield foil. This can be earthed along with the metal enclosure. C4 sends any hi-freq components to earth. It is better if you do not earth the ground but use such capacitors. A Supply should simulate a a battery with both ends floating wrt Earth. A option to eartth the ground is fine. This also helps the user to configure his own dual supplies.

Q1 and R5 form a Short Circuit OR current fold back OR constant current mechanism. TP1 can be used to vary the output voltage. Better use something like a Bourns 10T trimpot. An open preset may introduce a noise due to dust and vibration. I don’t remember why i added a zener DZ1, a diode may suffice.

PDF file is here – LM317 – Variable Power Supply

100kHz Half Bridge Convertor – SG3525

This is a SMPS Circuit application very close to the Application Note in the book SGS Motion Control Application Manual. This worked well. Read about SG2525 – SG3525 – PWM SMPS Regulator Chip.

Some Notes Related to the Project

  • In main circuit do not link different grounds.
  • Main circuit can be used both for 110 AC and 230 AC
  • Ferrites are partial conductors use proper insulation before winding.
  • For main transformer TRX2 use split bobbin for good/safe isolation.
  • Epoxy coated toroids have to be further insulated before winding.
  • Line of isolation between primary and secondary circuits should be explicit.
  • Primary components like Q1, Q2 tabs R5, R6 etc can give shock take caution.
  • Each main module is 500W and can be used in parallel for more current.
  • Q1 and Q2 should have appropriate isolated heatsinks TO220 type 50sq cm
  • Schottky diodes D5, D6 should have heatsinks TO220 type 100sq cm.
  • Diodes D5, D6 eg D83004 are TOP3 packages are used 2 in parallel.
  • For 200W and above R2=0.1e 5W in the main circuit fusible ceramic.
  • C10, C11… Add 4.7uF 100v more in parallel to reduce ripple.
  • C13, C14 can be 250V for better safety margin.
  • TRX1 SEC1 and SEC2 dot polarity is anti-phase if same phase danger!!

100kHz Half Bridge Convertor - SG3525
Zoom Image

Magnetics Design

All Transformers Isolation 1kV PRI To SEC / SEC To SEC / PRI,SEC To Core. Use Yellow Mylar Tape Insulation or better for all. Vacuum Impregnate all Magnetics in Epoxy or Varnish. All Power Tracks on PCB reinforce with Copper Braid.

TRX1 Mosfet Drive Transformer

T25.0 MGQ-5L Hitachi – Type Torroid – 100khz Signal

  • PRI1 20 Turns #22 Awg
  • SEC1 9 Turns #22 Awg
  • SEC2 9 Turns #22 Awg

486T250-3C8 Ferroxcube – SEC1 And SEC2 Antiphase

TRX2 Stepdown Invertor Transformer

EC52 Siemens/Hitachi – Can Be ETD/EER Cosmo Ferrites

  • PRI1 22 Turns 2 Layers (44 Turns) – 2* #16 Awg(18 Swg) In Parallel.
  • SEC1 4 Turns Ct Copper Strap 0.01″ * 0.8″ Copper Strap

Coper Strap/Ribbon used, cause Hi-Freq Skin Effects, PRI 2 Wires paralleled for same reason.
EC52-3C8 Ferroxcube Phillips

Trx3 Current Feedback Trx

T25.0 MGQ-5L Hitachi – Type Torroid – 100khz Signal

  • PRI1 1 Turn 4 Amps Max
  • SEC1 20 Turns #22 Awg CT.
  • Ceter Tap 10T-CT-10T

486T250-3C8 Ferroxcube

L1 Series 60A-80A Inductor

Type EC/ETD/EER EC42 Hitachi – Air Gap In Inductor Core Both Sides
100khz Power IF30-3C8 Ferroxcube – 6 Turns 4*#12 AWG In Parallel

4 Wires Of 12 AWG Twisted & Wound For 6 Turns (Use Less AWG For Less I)

TRX5 50hz Transformer Small

  • PRI1 & PRI2 115v
  • SEC1 24V 0.2A
  • JP2 2-3 Short 230V
  • PRI1 & PRI2 In Parallel For 110V
  • JP1 1-2 Short 230V 2-3 Short 110V

TRX4

This is A 10mH Common Mode Filter

The Reference Application on ST Half Bridge Convertor – SG3525

PCB Layout

The PCB of module will be added later, if i locate it. It is small and be designed easily.

Opamp Supply on Buffered Virtual Ground

When a Inverting Opamp Configuration is at a steady state, we say the Inverting Input is at a Virtual Ground. That means it is at 0V w.r.t to the dual power supply ground, but it cannot drive or draw any current. It is at a high impedance, but still at 0V. When you buffer this 0 V, you get a low signal ground for a opamp supply.

Opamp Supply on Buffered Virtual Ground

This gnd. can sink and source in a couple of mA. You can use it with low power opamp circuits for portable battery operated devices. This creates a virtual +/- 6 V dual supply from a 12V battery. This may be needed in cases where some instrumentation opamps need the negative supply or your design demands a measurement around zero. You may get a more loadable ground using a Power Opamp, i have not tried. The above circuit gnd cannot be used as a return path for LED’s or Relays. You can drive these, between VCC-VDD, but translate levels to drive them.