Opamp-Circuits (Page 4)

This amplifies the difference between two inputs Vp and Vn the low impedance of this configuration is a drawback, but can be used in analog computing. Optimum VCC VDD can be +12/-12. AC signals common to Vp and Vn are canceled by this configuration.

Use a capacitor like 10nF plastic from pin 2 to 3 or across R2 to make circuit stable. For AC applications use LF351 TLO71 as they have good slew rate and also are FET inputs. For AC applications use a capacitor (1uF) in series with Ri to block DC Components. The Inputs have asymmetrical input impedance this affects CMRR, also use 1% tolerance MFR resistors for Rf and Ri.

Differential Amplifier - Op-Amp Circuits

Vout = (Vp – Vn) * (Rf/Ri)

Instrumentation and Measurement Circuits

Input Impedance of this module is Ri as pin 2 is at virtual ground, the opamp with feedback tries to maintain pin 2 and 3 at same potential pin 3 is at 0V hence pin 2 is at virtual ground. Clamping diodes protect OpAmp, Rf + Ri is between 5kE and 1ME as an opamp may be able to drive around say 5mA max.

Inverting Amplifier – Op-Amp Circuits

Current into node pin 2 = Vin/Ri if Vin is +ve it raises potential at pin 2, in order to bring it to 0V the OpAmp sucks away the current by turning its output negative the current leaving pin 2 node is also Vin/Ri. Then Vout is given by Vin/Ri * Rf as per V=IR ohms law. Most OpAmps output swings around 1v less than VCC/VDD for full swing use CA3130 this is a FET input OpAmp, and has low bias currents in pico amps.
Inverting Amplifier - Op-Amp Circuits

Vout = Vin * (-1) * (Rf/Ri)

Precision Amplifier with Digital Control

This is a modification of a mV Source that can be whipped up easily. You could use a DPM or Multimeter to read the output. The ability of this circuit to perform well depends on the quality of all the MFR resistors and the MultiTurn Pot. Use a Bourns 10T Pot.

Good Soldered Joints, Keep all Resistors and temperature sensitive parts from Transformer and Regulators. Keep Ripple in power supplies low, no EMI tolerated. If you have problems, make a Battery Powered Unit. Shield well in case you are in a Electrically Noisy environment.

Millivolt Source In this link see at bottom this circuit millivolt source, pdf.

I have put a better offset null, OP07 has around 75uV offset error which may show as +/- 1 count error on 4 1/2 DPM 19999 counts. You can skip it if you are using a 3 1/2 digit DPM as the error will not show, even it 4 1/2 it may be upto 2 counts only.

R9, P4 and R10 are for balance and offset as you said you can use it that way. (old circuit)

C7 can be a low leakage plastic cap, even a tantalum electrolytic is ok, aluminum electrolytic may cause a very small error.

Q1 can be any npn that can take 100mA current, do not use RF devices, 2N2222 is best.

If you use a DPM protect DPM inputs with clamping diodes or zeners or an error in bread-boarding may send +/- 12V to DPM and it may be damaged. Some DPMs come with protection like DMMs. use the circuit in del2003.pdf in analog section to make a 4 1/2 DPM.

Also in 2000mV range do not short outputs as the Q1 may get damaged, and in 200mV and 20mV range the output impedance is 10 ohms which is good for calibrating any high input impedance instrumentation like a process indicator etc. loading with 100K 10K will cause error. Most instruments are very high impedance so it is fine.

The Measured Value and The Setpoint are two inputs to a Control System. The Measured Value is the Amplified input of a Transducer or Sensor for some Parameter that needs to be controlled. It could be Pressure or Temperature…etc.

The Setpoint is the User Defined Input using a Potentiometer, Thumbwheel, EPROM or Flash Value. This is the value at which the process has to be maintained for that parameter.

The difference of these two is the Error, this is the input for this PID Analog Computation Stage. The three Opamps are configured as Proportional, Integrator and Differentiator Amps.  The Addition or Summation of these Values is the PID Control Output.(These days it is Math in the Firmware on a MCU, DSP or Software Application in SCADA)

This Analog PID Control Output can now be translated to a 4-20 mA Control Signal, that means 0-100% of power to the Actuator, which could be a Heater, Pump, Fan, Motor using AC/DC Drives. It could be a Steam Valve, Pneumatic or Hydraulic Motorized/Solenoids. The Actuator Size/Array must be right for the Process, a tiny fan cannot cool a Large Furnace, a small solenoid valve cannot fill a Big Tank. An effective Proportional or PID  control depends on choosing or designing the Sensor, Actuator and System Environment prudently.  

The Auto Reset is needed to ensure the Integrator does not dampen the Process so much that it fails to even raise to the Process value fast enough (Diffrentiator). So in the Proportional Band the Integrator is Active.

If the Setpoint is 1000 deg C, the proportional band is 10%. The Raise of temperature till 950 deg is Undampended. After that Integrator is called in by the Window Comparator made of two opamps, the integrator prevents OverShoot, Undershoot, Ringing and Oscillations.

The PID control output can also be a Time Proportional Output like PWM. With a large cycle time of 20 or More seconds. Like 2 Seconds on and 18 Seconds off for 10% Control.Fast Cycle times may be needed for small systems with less inertia.

Industrial Process Control Circuits

This is a LED Analog Meter, This can be used as a Resistance Meter and Low Impedance Voltmeter for Battery Levels. To measure battery voltage, the R5-R12-R17 etc. part of the Reference Resistor Divider Network can be modified to suit. Shown here is for 4 LEDs, Use Three LM324 for 12 or More LEDs and Cascade as shown.

Resistance Measurement Analog LED Meter

This cannot Measure Voltage levels from High Impedance Sources, will work for Battery Voltage Tests. To make it into a Continuity tester. R27 must be a short and R23 5 Ohms. The Black probe should have a Built in Resistance of 2 Ohms. If you want it to be a dedicated voltmeter, remove R3, The Probe has to be a 10X Attenuator with 10M Ohm and The Resistor Divider Steps in 100mV per Step. The R27, R23 etc. is 20K. A Leakage Tester a Mains Voltage Monitor are other possibilities. Use LM3914 for a easier solution. A nice book for your Design Library – Measuring Circuits By Rudolf F. Graf

This is easy to rig millivolt source for field calibration or troubleshooting of 4-20 mA current loops. Here a Darlington pair is used for current amplification which reduces the Ib error as gain is very high.

Millivolt Source - Field Callibration Current Loop

A rotary switch selects, 4-12-20 mA Preset points. A Bourns multi-turn wirewound Pot can also be used with a digital dial. Enclose in a dust proof handheld box. Read more on process calibration.

When a Inverting Opamp Configuration is at a steady state, we say the Inverting Input is at a Virtual Ground. That means it is at 0V w.r.t to the dual power supply ground, but it cannot drive or draw any current. It is at a high impedance, but still at 0V. When you buffer this 0 V, you get a low signal ground for a opamp supply.

Opamp Supply on Buffered Virtual Ground

This gnd. can sink and source in a couple of mA. You can use it with low power opamp circuits for portable battery operated devices. This creates a virtual +/- 6 V dual supply from a 12V battery. This may be needed in cases where some instrumentation opamps need the negative supply or your design demands a measurement around zero. You may get a more loadable ground using a Power Opamp, i have not tried. The above circuit gnd cannot be used as a return path for LED’s or Relays. You can drive these, between VCC-VDD, but translate levels to drive them.