This is the best Instrumentation OpAmp, Great CMRR, ensure supply has no ripple and keep analog and digital grounds separate. Ri can be replaced with a trimpot and resistor to alter gain. Connect a preset ends to pins 1 and 8 and preset wiper to VCC for Offset Null when high gains are configured.
Thermocouple and Pt-100 RTD
The Input zeners and diodes form a protective clamp for all voltages above VCC-VDD. If supply is changed to +12 -12 change zeners to 12V zeners. Use similar Zeners at output to protect Output from being zapped by overvoltages or high energy – voltage*frequency transients. Add plastic capacitors across Rf for damping AC operation or ripple. Also avoid floating inputs by providing a bias.
Vout = (Vp – Vn) * (2Rf+Ri)/Ri
The Input Impedance of this module is very high and is symmetric. This circuit can be used for strain gauges and for four wire measurements. If inputs are in mV use OP07. The merit is that it uses only 2 OpAmps yet has high differential Input Impedance.
Dual Differential Amp – Interactive Simulation
The Outputs of Opamps are low impedance but still have limits they cannot drive more than a few mA of Current into the Load. If low ohmic value loads are to be applied use external transistors as amplifiers. If inputs Vn-Vp are floating Outputs may be random or Oscillating, it is good to have a bias network of 10M resistors to a potential even zero or COM this enables Vout when input floats.
Vout = (Vp – Vn) * (Rf+Ri)/Ri
Precision Instrumentation Amplifiers
If output impedance of a point is a high value then connecting another circuit at that point will load it resulting in malfunction or error. Buffers are used as interface between circuits. Low impedance of an output means it can source sink lot of current, when you need 2 opamps use LF353 or TL072 which are dual opamps.
Blind Dial Proportional Temperature Controller
A non-inv FET input is the best buffer, for inverting buffer use high R values Using very high R values like 2.2M or higher requires a glass epoxy PCB and guard rings around pin 2, 3 to prevent leakage currents on the PCB reaching the PINs. Also moisture and dust has to be prevented by using RTV coating or Varnish. Use 78L05 79L05 for the dual supply required by this circuit.
Vout = -(Vin) for inverting
Vout = Vin for non-inverting
This amplifies the difference between two inputs Vp and Vn the low impedance of this configuration is a drawback, but can be used in analog computing. Optimum VCC VDD can be +12/-12. AC signals common to Vp and Vn are canceled by this configuration.
Use a capacitor like 10nF plastic from pin 2 to 3 or across R2 to make circuit stable. For AC applications use LF351 TLO71 as they have good slew rate and also are FET inputs. For AC applications use a capacitor (1uF) in series with Ri to block DC Components. The Inputs have asymmetrical input impedance this affects CMRR, also use 1% tolerance MFR resistors for Rf and Ri.
Vout = (Vp – Vn) * (Rf/Ri)
Instrumentation and Measurement Circuits