The OP07 is in a non inverting amplifier so as not load the mV of thermocouple, the zeners are to protect circuit if junction contacts heaters or the earth gets broken.
Thermocouple and Pt-100 RTD
The RC is to filter out 50Hz pick up in thermocouple wires if near heater wiring and also reduces reading jumps when high current three phase contacter operates.
The Pull-up 10M is when a Thermocouple breaks the output of circuit will be max. This is open sensor protection, in case Thermocouple breaks, Required only in industrial temperature controllers for protection. This means it will be 3.5V which should make you turn off the heater in software.
J and K Thermocouple with 4-20 mA
The other opamp is for further amplification as OP07 is set to around 30 gain and offset has to be adjusted with R9. If OP07 is kept in > 100 gain it may be difficult to adjust offset of 75uV. If you need very high gain in the first stage use some instrumentation amplifier or chopper stabilized amplifier. I am not very sure. This is the very basic Thermocouple Amplifier used as a front end signal conditioning in Process Control.
When Instruments are designed a analog front end is essential and also as most equipment have digital or microcontroller interface the analog circuit needs to have digital access. The Circuits DACT0008 and DACT0009 are both useful in building instruments which have digital control.
Precision Attenuator with Digital Control
The Circuit DACT0008 is a programmable attenuator and the digital control can be a remote dip switch, a CMOS Logic Output like the A-B-C-D outputs of a decade counter, or an I/O port of a uC like 80C31.
The heart of the circuit is the popular OP07 OpAmp with Ultra Low Offset in the inverting configuration, 4052 a CMOS analog multiplexer switch enables the gain change, the innovation of the circuit is that the on resistance ( around 100 ohms) of 4052 switch is bypassed so that no error is introduced by its use.
The resistors used R1 to R6 can be 0.1% 50ppm if you will use a 3 ½ DPM i.e. + /- 1999 counts ( approx. 11 bit ), but for 4 ½ DPM ( approx. 14 bit ) you may need to have trimpots2 in place of R3, R4, R5 & R6 gain selection resistors to properly calibrate to required accuracy but for testing or trials use 1% 100ppm MFR resistors but the errors will be around 1%.
Output connect to DPM 7107/7135 or any other A/D Convertor or OpAmp Stage. Use a buffer at output if output has to be loaded by a value less than 1Meg. Use an inverting buffer if input leads have to have polarity where gnd is -In. See DACT0009 for details.
c. 4052 CMOS Switch
The 4052/51/53 Analog Multiplexers have an on Resistance of around 100E the highlight of the circuit is that the CMOS on resistance comes in series with the opamp output source resistance, which produces no error at output.
Digital Control Options
A and B can be controlled by I/O port of uC, like 80C31 so that the uC can Control gain. A and B can be given to Counters like 4029/4518 to scroll gain digitally. A and B can be connected to DIP switch or thumbwheel switch.