This Circuit helps in the monitoring of mains supply voltage. It does not use a isolation step down transformer. This has to be constructed only by skilled people with knowledge of safety requirements.
C1 limits the current and drops most of the voltage. The zener regulated supply is for the chip. C2 can be raised to 220uF or more if required. The bar mode display may consume more power.
Mains Voltage Power Transformers
R2-R3-R5-R6 form a voltage divider to get a sample of the input voltage, D11-C3 get the DC value.
Adjust R5 preset with a log Plastic tweaker to get the 5th led to just turn on when input voltage is at 138V AC. This has to be done after PCB is put in a sealed fire-retardant-plastic or epoxy box. drill a hole in box for plastic tweaker.
National LM3914 – Dot Bar Display Driver
This Circuit is Not a Tested Design. It is an Idea for study
Warning : This Circuit is Mains Operated without Isolation Transformer and will give lethal electric shock if touched when the circuit is turned on. Test circuit only with DC 9V Bench Power Supply to try it out. Do not use 230V AC.
The Edsion Filament lamp may be less popular, but it is the most cost-effective light even today. It is very affordable, The light is soothing to the eyes and best of all gives a warm feeling.
Sometimes due to the mains being restored when bulb is on, or a rapid flick of switch, blows it. This may be due to the cold filament resistance which is low, allowing a huge inrush current.
LED Lighting – The Future is Here
The problem can be solved with a soft start based on thyristor or mosfet using PWM etc. The circuit here is a low cost solution which may help a bit in reducing the inrush cold current Protection from long duration high voltages is also required but will make circuit more complex.
Now why would anyone spend for a R-C network for a bulb, you could as well buy a new bulb. But I once got a back sprain while replacing a bulb in a hurry, So the price of the bulb alone is not the issue.
CFL Lamps and Simple Inverter
The two diodes 1A form a AC path with a switching delay of diodes, The R-C network is for soft start. The Varistor-Thermistor has a cold resistance 4.7E which reduces as it warms up. If switch is flicked rapidly or power fluctuates, then varistor cannot help as its response is slow. The 10E resistor ceramic fusible wirewound resistor and C1 does the job of absorbing .
This circuit has not been tested for long times at multiple places, so i am not sure of its performance.
This is a mains 230V AC voltage indicator and is a LIVE CIRCUIT, so take care. The Resistor has to be a fusible ceramic wire wound and the capacitor 630V AC or higher capacity.
More at my Home Made Circuits.
This circuit has been drawn from my memory and i have not tried it out again, just see if it is ok and then try. You should use the fuse of 100mA a slow blow if you want but it is very important. This circuit has to be enclosed in a plastic sealed enclosure to avoid contact.
This is a mains 230V AC load current indicator and is a LIVE CIRCUIT, so take care. The Resistors have to be a fusible ceramic wire wound.
More at Mains Voltage and Power Circuits
This circuit has been drawn from my memory and i have not tried it out again, just see if it is ok and then try. You should use the fuse of 1A a slow blow if you want but it is very important. You can design the shunt R3 and Fuse rating as required by your load.
Note that this circuit is to be put in series with the load like an ammeter. If you put it across the supply like a voltmeter it will fuse out or burn out. This circuit has to be enclosed in a plastic sealed enclosure to avoid contact.
The circuit uses opto-coupler MOC3041 of Motorola and the Triac BTA16-600 of STMicro as a solid state switch or relay. Four Switches boost or buck the mains voltage, keeping output within limits.
Power Electronics Design Methods
It also uses the LM324 quad opamp from National Semiconductor which is low power and single supply. As the MOC3041 switches the Triac at zero crossover there is no inter-winding short of transformer on crossover hopefully, the control circuit is designed in such a way that more than one triac will not be turned on at a time, i would like you to give feedback.
555 multivibrator like power oscillator
This circuit is a design concept, not tested by me and i did it just to explain some ideas.
The triac will switch at zero cross over because of MOC3041, hence no problem of an interwinding short, but then control circuit may fail or malfunction, so use fuse as shown . Also a snubber made of a 47E resistor and 0.02uF 630V pl cap in series must be placed across each triac.
Battery and Energy Management
Use heatsinks for all parts that heat, air circulation. Use Presets with series resistor as required so that you can test or calibrate. This Stabilizer should not be used with Inductive loads like motors or solenoids it may be ok for lighting and small electronics. If input voltage is 230V put the two 110V windings in series in proper polarity. BTA16600 is a ST part, metal tab is electrically insulated, 16A and 600V.
All mains wiring and connections should be designed for high voltage and current, They should be isolated visually from control circuits by 10 mm or more.
It can Stabilize Mains voltage to around +/- 10% . It can be used for both 110V AC or 220V AC inputs with modifications. The Output is 220V AC. There is an overload, under voltage and over voltage trip circuit.
Mains Stabilty and Supply Regulation
U2A and U2B are two comparators which controls relays K2 and K3 Respectively. One Boosts the voltage (Step-up) when mains supply is low. The other Bucks the voltage (Step-down) when mains voltage goes beyond a limit.
UPS Power Inverter and DC to AC
U2C and U2D work like a window comparator to trip the unit above and below certain preset limits. This circuit is clubbed with a Mains control relay K1 which can be Turned ON-OFF with two pushbuttons.
This circuit is a design i did, not tested by me as yet.With some tweaks and modifications it might work.
Put a 0.1uF 1KV pl cap across all relay contacts to avoid sparking. Relay current paths should be large and direct to supply, or when relay operates ground will lift and cause malfunction.All mains wiring and connections should be designed for high voltage and current, They should be isolated visually from control circuits by 10 mm or more. If input voltage is 230V put the two 110V windings in series in proper polarity.
Electric double layer capacitor an eFlywheel
Put one LED with resistor for boost and buck indication if required. Use Presets with series resistor as required so that you can test or calibrate. The 1M dead band or hysteresis resistor can be varied from 330K to 10M as performance demands, this resistor stops oscillation or chattering of relays.
A Center tap 50Hz Step Down Transformer with two diodes is used to get a train of Positive Sine Pulses at 100Hz which is applied to Q6 base via R51. 2N2646 is a unijunction transistor(UJT) in a TO-18 metal package. The control voltage or voltage proportional to error is fed to R56-Q3, The UJT drives a pulse transformer which provides isolation from the Load which the SCR bridge is controlling. This phase angle control gives a near Linear closed loop control for a SCR bridge which may be used in Electroplating or a Preregulator of a big power supply.