U1 CD4541 is a Timer with Long Duration Ability. This timer is started by a low pulse from earlier circuit, when the temperature goes above setpoint, a low state is at U2A inputs, this starts the timer. The timer output goes high after a preset time. U2C-D Flip flop is power on reset via cap C7. Even a manual ‘reset’ is used if required. This alarm toggle is ‘set’ when The temperature remains high even after the preset time period of U1.
Timer and Counter Modules – del90002
A digital counter monitors the number of times a process goes beyond a certain temperature limit over a long cycle of time. This circuit has a Analog Timer and Digital Counter. The Analog timer turns on an Alarm if the Temperature Limit transition is very long.
This circuit is a small representation of a very low cost printer sharer. It has no Active Devices only diodes.
Pot the product in epoxy with a black dye, they serve the purpose. Output impedance of this circuit is high, sink is 220K source is 3.9K+ so use some buffers or drivers at Output. If Buffers are omitted, then fix this unit on the printer port connector of Computer.
when Enable A is at float-high impedance or low the output O1-O4 is not influenced by A1-A4 inputs. If Enable A is made logic high or 5V then A1-A4 is available at O1-O4.
By turning Enable A or Enable B high, you can route the data A1-A4 or B1-B4 to the output O1-O4, you can also mix data and you can expand to any number of input sets or data width. 1N4148 is fast, 4nS, that makes this data switch quite fast. This circuit cannot drive long printer cables without drivers. They will load the output.
A, B, and C are the Digital Control for x, y and z input and output pairs.The voltage at Vinx is stored in C1 when A goes high, when A is low the voltage stored in C1 is read by buffer U2A.
It could be used in DMM circuits as Analog Memory DMM range, AC-DC mode, logic control
Another application of Mux 8 Channel 4-20mA Analog Multiplexer
The stby or standby input should be low when sample and hold is operating. If stby is taken high then C1 Cap is isolated and leakage is minimum. The supply of +/- 7.5V is chosen as OFF resistance of 4053 is high at this supply.
CD4538 is a dual Monostable Multivibrator. When you trigger the chip the output sends off one single pulse or one high-low event.
Mixed Circuits Analog with Digital
The T+ pin 4 of U1a is the positive edge trigger or raising edge trigger input, the T- pin 5 is falling edge or negative edge trigger input. Now see the image of the single pulse above which shows both the edges, If this is the input pulse at pin 5 then the falling edge turns the output pin 6 from low to high, this output remains high for time T = R2 * C1 and then goes low again, The output Q at pin 6 also looks like the image of pulse above.
The Output pin 7 is the complementary state of pin 6, it is the reverse state or inverted form of pin 6 output.
Now why is a slope shown in the edges, this i have exaggerated a bit so that it can be explained. But then there is a slight slope due to gate input and output capacitance.
In fact if you had a wire or twisted track coming to the input and the R2C1 was in nano seconds, then you would see a ringing at the edges, a tiny peak or spike, which will have giga hertz frequency components, in fact a square way may be many sine waves put together, this you know from a spectrum analyzer.
Two Stage Sequential Timer
CD4538B can give an output with pulse width of 1uS and above. 74HC4538 gives 120nS to 60 Seconds pulses. The above circuit produces a pulse of width T = R3 * C2 after a delay of T = R2 * C1. Some Chips formula is T = 0.7 * R * C .
I had to once interface an high voltage circuit to PC, The uC had to communicate thru RS232–Comm port–Serial Port.
Part of the 80C31 8051 SBC
Even though i had isolation at the sensors and actuators to make doubly sure the PC also has been isolated. There are chips that are available for this purpose, The circuit above is built with discrete and passive components except for the opto 4N35. You can use MCT2E and CNY17-3 Optos too. For MCT2E some tweak may be needed as current transfer ratio is 20, for the other two CTR is 100 so above design will work.
The circuit derives power from PC but does not load the PC supply. Any voltage above 5V applied to the PC connectors may lead to damage of motherboard in PC. Old PCs were more vulnerable but PCs today maybe a bit rugged at the Ports. Due to internal current limits and clamping.
The VCC, VDD and Agnd are derived from PC no other power needs to be applied on PC side of opto. On uC side of opto the uC power supply lines +5 and gnd has to be used. There is no copper link between the two sides and depending on opto a 1KV isolation is possible if PCB is well designed. The PCB should show the visual isolation above and components should be laid on separate areas of PCB to prevent creepage.
The LEDs are to indicate the port activity Rx and Tx, they are not required once testing is over. The circuit can be simpler, but this worked for me and it is not tested at very-high buad rates.
The levels of RS232 are not TTL like 0-5 we have both polarities +10 and -10. The circuit has to change that to drive the Opto Leds.
RS232 software. Understanding RS232 Serial Port Communication.
U1 7555 is a CMOS version of 555. The 555 here is in Astable Oscillator mode, C1 and C4 are decoupling capacitors 0.1uF value, ceramic disc.
Mixed and Interface Circuits
The output is around 100kHz, If C3 is plastic or mica the frequency output will be stable with temperature. It is better to use a crystal oscillator.
The 555 output is fed to clock input of 4040, the output of 555 will be a square wave, on every high to low transition (falling edge or negative transition) the counter increments by one and the output is 12 bit binary.
Read more at my Digital Timers, Counters and Clocks
If input frequency is F the final output at Q12 is F/4096. The period T = 1/F.
If you make the 555 run at 1Hz, C3 around 7uF, Then this circuit becomes a long duration timer, the Q12 period will be 4096 seconds or 68 minutes.
This shows how to OR gate two 555, when one 555 cycles at a low frequency a valve turns on an off, the second 555 stretches the ON duration of the pulse with a diode OR gate.
Digital Timers Counters and Clocks
The OR output uses sample and hold to get the stable analog data from a sensor after the actuator has gone OFF, this ensures correct reading.
555 is a fundamental Mixed Signal Circuit as it can be made into a VCO using Pin-5. If you see old exar databooks, you can see 555 and PLL and Tone decoders all applications compiled in one base. I feel the Venerable Signetics 555 “Architecture” and Intersil ICL8038 ‘CMOS’ were inspiration behind early communication chip designs, Moving from Bakelite Telephones to Compact Push Button Electronic Phones and more.