delabs (Page 17)

Product Design - Industrial Automation and Instrumentation. -

I will just explain part of this circuit. D9 and D10 provide a low cost -1.4 from -5 V. This is needed to reach near 0.00 for LM317 Min. setting. An LED also can be used with proper bias. Note that there is a Temperature Coefficient in ppm, see The Unusual Diode FAQ. but it may not matter upto 8 bits accuracy.

TIP2955, TIP3055 (NPN), TIP2955 (PNP) Complementary Silicon Power Transistors. It is a Darlington, that means good current gain. See Darlington transistor – Wikipedia. When current in R1 10E goes more than 50mA a voltage of 50mA X 10E = 500mV is applied across Emmiter-Base junction. So lower than 500mV no bias the tap is turned off, 500mV-700mV the tap starts turning on depending on type of transistor. The transistor is like a water Tap. So TIP2955 carries the major current burden thru the load allowing LM317 to do the decision making when to turn-on or off. It is analog control, it is not On-Off but linear-proportional. The LM317 is very cool as the burden is passed off to TIP2955 who will need a heatsink to keep going and deliver the power you want.

WorkBench Dual Power SupplyPut the filter caps appropriately. The Hum-Noise will be filtered. The cap after the regulator should be a small guy. The main filter cap after the Bridge can be as big as your cabinet or budget.

If you build it and wire it without designing a PCB, then make all wiring and connection very sound. The test of this ability you can know easily, If your project stops working after the last screw of the cabinet is tightened, Then we need to improve.

With these circuits you can make an insulation tester going upto two tera ohm, hence currents will be in pico amps, great care required in design. The rotary switches for voltages and ganged interlocked range switches must not be phenolic but industrial epoxy based molded switches.

The parts list which is not in the circuit, is listed below, the circuit is 15 years old. but you may get some idea on high resistance measurement. Use 1% MFR for all Resistors and low leakage plastic caps for low values. These instruments i used to calibrate with Victoreen Resitors and a Electrometer from Princeton Research, I faintly remember.

Theory of Operation.

The Device Under Test DUT say a transformer is placed in a Metal tray connected to the Guard SK3 terminal. The metal tray has a 3mm glass sheet on which DUT is kept. For 2 Tera ohm make sure that Humidity and Dust do not affect measurements.

Now 1000V is applied on a DUT terminal from the high voltage supply, ( in reference to Guard SK3 at earth and 0V). Then the point where the leakage is to be measured is connected to SK4 via a BNC short, scope, shielded cable. The current goes thru a shunt selected by S5 and voltage across the shunt is measured by ICL7650 a Chopper stabilized amplifier, with ultra low offset and bias. The amplified output is fed to Vref of ICL7107 which displays the Insulation Resistance. The full range is not valid in this circuit and for low values, change to a range where the reading is more number of counts. The above circuit does not include some upgrades and changes i did later using ICL7135 etc.. If i find it i will add it later.

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With these circuits you can make an insulation tester going upto one tera ohm (2 Tera ohm max). hence currents will be in pico amps, great care required in design. Also 1000 Volts DC is generated which can cause injury. take great care. the above circuit is for the advanced instrumentation hobbyist only, do not try it at home.

The parts list which is not in the circuit is listed below, the circuit is 15 years old. but you may get some idea on high resistance measurement.

IC7, IC9 – NE555 – Timer IC
IC8 – LM723 – Voltage Regulator

The above list is from my memory, hence it may be wrong, i have forgotten this circuit, this circuit was scanned by a hp photosmart and resized and optimized by irfanview. also note the technology may be obsolete, but basic idea is still the same today.

Insulation Tester power supply

Theory of Operation.

IC7 555 as an Astable chops the DC with T2 NPN transistor. TR2 was a Russian U Core High-Freq Transformer. The secondary was insulated with mylar, layer to layer and impregnated in Mica-Lacquer or varnish. The 723 Chip along with T1 is The closed loop regulator which changes the DC which is chopped.

The high voltage is attenuated and that is the feedback to 723 chip which by comparing to a reference, controls the output. The diodes and caps are in series to withstand 1000V and above.

Insulation Tester or Teraohm Meter with Polarization Index

This was designed, keeping in mind, that sometimes we have few components available and you could not carry your DMM somewhere, but you have to make some instrument for a quick need with what is available.

Analog Dial AVO Amps-Volts-Ohms meter

IC3 LM555 is to generate -5V from 9V. That reminds me of a story, In 1986 while i was studying BE electronics i got a chance to work part-time in a company that sold-serviced imported instruments, it was called trans-marketing. They were the agents for Racal-Dana, Genrad, Data I/O and so many more. Here i came across a Book called CMOS Hot Ideas of Intersil. I had a chance to observe, build and learn some things here. The ICL7107 circuit was the most fascinating, I also read the books of National Semiconductor here.

Analog Dial AVO Amps-Volts-Ohms meter

In those days small firms used to make DPM’s digital panel meters with 7107. In 1987 when i got a oppurtunity to design a DPM for a firm, I put the 555 clock in place CD4009 clock shown in intersil, to derive the -5.

The Measured Value and The Setpoint are two inputs to a Control System. The Measured Value is the Amplified input of a Transducer or Sensor for some Parameter that needs to be controlled. It could be Pressure or Temperature…etc.

The Setpoint is the User Defined Input using a Potentiometer, Thumbwheel, EPROM or Flash Value. This is the value at which the process has to be maintained for that parameter.

The difference of these two is the Error, this is the input for this PID Analog Computation Stage. The three Opamps are configured as Proportional, Integrator and Differentiator Amps.  The Addition or Summation of these Values is the PID Control Output.(These days it is Math in the Firmware on a MCU, DSP or Software Application in SCADA)

This Analog PID Control Output can now be translated to a 4-20 mA Control Signal, that means 0-100% of power to the Actuator, which could be a Heater, Pump, Fan, Motor using AC/DC Drives. It could be a Steam Valve, Pneumatic or Hydraulic Motorized/Solenoids. The Actuator Size/Array must be right for the Process, a tiny fan cannot cool a Large Furnace, a small solenoid valve cannot fill a Big Tank. An effective Proportional or PID  control depends on choosing or designing the Sensor, Actuator and System Environment prudently.  

The Auto Reset is needed to ensure the Integrator does not dampen the Process so much that it fails to even raise to the Process value fast enough (Diffrentiator). So in the Proportional Band the Integrator is Active.

If the Setpoint is 1000 deg C, the proportional band is 10%. The Raise of temperature till 950 deg is Undampended. After that Integrator is called in by the Window Comparator made of two opamps, the integrator prevents OverShoot, Undershoot, Ringing and Oscillations.

The PID control output can also be a Time Proportional Output like PWM. With a large cycle time of 20 or More seconds. Like 2 Seconds on and 18 Seconds off for 10% Control.Fast Cycle times may be needed for small systems with less inertia.

Industrial Process Control Circuits

Let us assume you have to Measure Amps and Volts in four independent circuits. This becomes a Multi Channel Voltmeter and Ammeter.

This circuit uses a 4052 as a DC  Analog Multiplexer, the inputs to this Mux must be from Low Impedance Output OpAmps. The Resistors Shown are not needed once the Signal Conditioning Opamps are connected. The Restors can be 100K to keep the inputs from floating, that will not load an opamp. The resistors can attenuate signals if  sensors are directly connected.

The signals from sensors have to be amplified and corrected or scaled before reaching this Switched DVM. For Current a Shunt is the Sensor and for AC current a CT or current transformer is the sensor. Voltmeter has Attenuator as the ‘Sensor’.

he 7107 DPM can be replaced by the Analog Inputs of the Arduino or Microcontrooler A/D Stage.

This Circuit  is a DPM or digital panel meter. It has a analog bar graph display and a 3-1/2 digit digital display. ICL7107 is used in the 200mV configuration.

U4A opamp LF353 amplifies the 200mV Full scale input to the level required for the LM3914 display circuit. D13-D14 are clamping protection diodes. Adjust P1 trimpot for a reading of 1000 counts when a 100.0 mV signal is fed at Vin. Adjust R8 trimpot to get the 5th led  to just turn on at 100mV input.

Analog and Digital Voltmeter using ICL7107

A combination of digital and analog display is helpful for quick decision making. Analog indicates even from a distance the process dimension.

Human Brain understands analog better. The digital is required to note down and record values for determining a setpoint or performance of a system.

Sometimes a analog recorder with a ink-pen plot against time is a very good way of process analysis. Many systems are better studied using graphs not tables and lists of numbers. A Computer based data-logger gives greater power to this methods. You can measure and plot graphs of various types and at different points and for much longer periods.

This is a part of my Build a DMM or Digital Multi Meter